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Raid Gauloises
The RAID GAULOISES or THE RAID is considered by many to be the first modern adventure race and was first held in 1989. Its creator, Gérard Fusil , took the existing concept of long distance endurance races, and focused on the team aspects, requiring each competitor to be part of a five-person co-ed team. The Raid had no set course, with competitors being required to rely on their wits and judgment to reach the specified checkpoints. The Raid was named after its original sponsor, the Gauloises Cigarette Company . In 1996, Fusil left the Raid to begin a new adventure race series, the Elf Authentic Adventure. Patrick Brignoli and Alain Gaimard continued to organize the Raid with their company RGO and Saga d'Aventures (The 1997 Raid in Ecuador
Ecuador
was the first raid organized without Fusil). 2003 was the last year for the Raid Gauloises. In 2004 the Raid Gauloises was retooled into the Raid World Championship
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South Africa
11 languages * Afrikaans
Afrikaans
* Northern Sotho * English * Southern Ndebele * Southern Sotho * Swazi * Tsonga * Tswana * Venda * Xhosa * Zulu ETHNIC GROUPS (2014 ) * 80.2% Black * 8.8% Coloured
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Ecuador
Coordinates : 2°00′S 77°30′W / 2.000°S 77.500°W / -2.000; -77.500 REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR República del Ecuador
Ecuador
(Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Dios, patria y libertad" (Spanish ) * "Pro Deo, Patria et Libertate" (Latin ) * "God, homeland and freedom" ANTHEM: Salve, Oh Patria (Spanish) Hail, Oh Homeland Location of
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Malaysia
Coordinates : 2°30′N 112°30′E / 2.500°N 112.500°E / 2.500; 112.500 Malaysia Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu" "Unity Is Strength" ANTHEM: Negaraku My Country CAPITAL Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683
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Madagascar
MADAGASCAR (/ˌmædəˈɡæskər/ ; Malagasy : Madagasikara), officially the REPUBLIC OF MADAGASCAR (Malagasy: Repoblikan'i Madagasikara ; French : République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic , is an island country in the Indian Ocean , off the coast of East Africa . The nation comprises the island of Madagascar (the fourth-largest island in the world), and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana , Madagascar split from the Indian peninsula around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot ; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats
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Oman
Coordinates : 21°N 57°E / 21°N 57°E / 21; 57 Sultanate of Oman سلطنة عُمان ( Arabic
Arabic
) Salṭanat ʻUmān Flag National emblem ANTHEM: نشيد السلام السلطاني "as-Salām as-Sultānī " "Sultanic Salutation" Location of Oman
Oman
in the
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Nepal
NEPAL (/nəˈpɔːl/ ( listen ); Nepali : नेपाल Nepāl ), officially the FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF NEPAL (Nepali : सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl), is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia . Nepal
Nepal
is divided into 7 states and 77 districts and 744 local units including 4 metropolises, 13 sub-metropolises, 246 municipal councils and 481 villages. It has a population of 26.4 million and is the 93rd largest country by area. Bordering China
China
in the north and India
India
in the south, east, and west, it is the largest sovereign Himalayan state . Nepal
Nepal
does not border Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, which is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip
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Vietnam
Coordinates : 16°10′N 107°50′E / 16.167°N 107.833°E / 16.167; 107.833 Socialist Republic of Vietnam Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam (Vietnamese ) Flag Emblem MOTTO: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc "Independence – Freedom – Happiness" ANTHEM: Tiến Quân Ca (English: "Army March") Location of Vietnam (green) in ASEAN
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Les Échos (France)
LES ÉCHOS is the first daily French financial newspaper edited in Paris
Paris
since 1908. CONTENTS * 1 History and profile * 2 Circulation * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORY AND PROFILEThe paper was established as a monthly publication under the name of Les Échos de l’Exportation by the brothers Robert and Émile Servan-Schreiber in 1908. It became a daily newspaper in 1928 and was renamed as Les Échos. The newspaper was bought by the British media group Pearson PLC
Pearson PLC
in 1988, and was sold to the French luxury goods conglomerate LVMH in November 2007. The publisher of the paper is Groupe Les Échos. Les Échos has a liberal stance and is published on weekdays. The paper is headquartered in Paris
Paris
and has a website which was launched in 1996
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Libération
LIBéRATION (French: , popularly known as Libé ), is a daily newspaper in France, founded in Paris by Jean-Paul Sartre and Serge July in 1973 in the wake of the protest movements of May 1968 . For its first six or seven years it was a uniquely vibrant and pluralist publication and hugely influential. This was mainly due to its refusal to take paid advertising which meant there was no direct or indirect pressure from advertisers. It was paid for by sales on newsstalls and by subscriptions. Even classified adverts in the back pages (Les Petits annonces) were free. These and the exciting content attracted people to buy it regularly. Another innovation was the "note de la claviste" (ndlc) a comment, often very witty or apt, inserted by the claviste—the typesetter. The cartoons were unique and often savage and side-splitting. It has been described as a far-left newspaper. It has also been described as merely open, critical, and pluralist
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Kyrgyzstan
Coordinates : 41°N 75°E / 41°N 75°E / 41; 75 Kyrgyz Republic* Кыргыз Республикасы (Kyrgyz ) Kırgız Respublikası * Кыргызская Республика (Russian ) Kyrgyzskaya Respublika Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Кыргыз Республикасынын Мамлекеттик Гимни Kırgız Respublikasının Mamlekettik Gimni National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic Location of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(green) Capital and largest city
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Costa Rica
Coordinates : 10°N 84°W / 10°N 84°W / 10; -84 Republic of Costa Rica República de Costa Rica
Costa Rica
(Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Noble patria, tu hermosa bandera " (Spanish ) "Noble motherland, your beautiful flag" Capital and largest city San José 9°56′N 84°5′W / 9.933°N 84.083°W / 9.933; -84.083 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Spanish <
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New Caledonia
Coordinates : 21°15′S 165°18′E / 21.25°S 165.30°E / -21.25; 165.30 New Caledonia Nouvelle-Calédonie (French ) Flags of New Caledonia MOTTO: "Terre de parole, terre de partage" "Land of speech, land of sharing" ANTHEM: Soyons unis, devenons frères Emblem STATUS Sui generis special collectivity Capital and largest city Nouméa
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Italy
Coordinates : 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12 Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana (Italian ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Il Canto degli Italiani (Italian ) "The Song of the Italians" Location of Italy
Italy
(dark green) – in Europe
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France
FRANCE (French: ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française, pronounced ), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe
Europe
, as well as several overseas regions and territories . The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea
North Sea
, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America
South America
and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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