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Rai Dynasty
The Rai Dynasty (c. 524–632 CE)[2] was at power during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Sindh, in modern Pakistan.[1] The dynasty at its height of power ruled much of the Northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent. The influence of the Rais extended from Kashmir
Kashmir
in the east, Makran
Makran
and Debal
Debal
port (modern Karachi) in the west, Surat
Surat
port in the south, and the Kandahar, Sulaiman, Ferdan and Kikanan hills in the north.[1] It ruled an area of over 600,000 square miles (1,553,993 km2), and the dynasty reigned a period of 143 years.[1] The Battle of Rasil
Battle of Rasil
in 644 played a crucial role in their decline
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Aror
Aror (Sindhi: اروهڙ) or Alor or Arorkot (Sindhi: اروهڙ ڪوٽ) is the medieval name of the city of Rohri (in Sindh, modern Pakistan).[1] Aror once served as the capital of Sindh.[2][3] History[edit] Little is known about the city's history prior to the Arab invasion in the 8th century CE.[4] Aror was the capital of the Ror Dynasty, which was followed by Rai Dynasty and then the Brahman Dynasty that once ruled northern Sindh. According to the Bhavishya Purana, Parshuram attacked the Kshatriyas but eventually met one who refused to oppose the Brahmins. This caused Parshuram to gain respect for him and as a result Parshuram asked this Kshatriya to settle in Sind, in Arorkot. This Kshatriya's descendants were named after the place.[1] Aror is the ancestral town of the Arora caste.[5] and e In 711, Aror was captured by the army of Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim
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Karachi
Karachi
Karachi
(Urdu: کراچی‬‎; ALA-LC: Karācī, IPA: [kəˈraːtʃi] ( listen); Sindhi: ڪراچي‎) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh
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Khairpur (princely State)
FlagLocation of the former princely state of KhairpurHistory •  Established 1775 •  merged into West Pakistan 14 October 1955Area 15,730 km2 (6,073 sq mi)Today part of Sindh, PakistanLocal Government Department of SindhThe State of Khairpur (Sindhi: خيرپور رياست‎، Urdu: ریاست خیرپور‎), also transliterated as Khairpur[1] [2] or Khayrpur, was a princely state of British India on the Indus River in modern-day Sindh, Pakistan, with its capital city at Khairpur. The state was counted amongst the Rajputana states (now Rajasthan in India) to the east. It was later a Princely state of Pakistan from 1947 until its end in 1955.Contents1 History 2 Administration 3 Rulers 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]The history of the state of Khairpur is bound up with that of the Talpur clan and its rule over Sind
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Bombay Presidency
FlagThe Bombay
Bombay
Presidency in 1909, northern portionHistorical era New Imperialism •  Establishment of the Western Presidency
Western Presidency
at Surat 1618 •  Bombay
Bombay
Presidency Split into Sindh
Sindh
and Bombay
Bombay
state 1947 •  Indian independence 1947 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bombay Presidency". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.)
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Indian Subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate
Indian Plate
and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the Himalayas
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Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ (Urdu) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]FlagEmblemMotto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah قَومی ترانہ‬ "The National Anthem"[3]Area controlled by Pakistan
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Kashmir
Kashmir
Kashmir
is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley
Kashmir Valley
between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range
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Debal
Debal
Debal
(Sindhi: ديبل‎; Urdu: ديبل‎) was an ancient port located near modern Karachi, Pakistan.[1] It is adjacent to the nearby Manora Island and was administered by Mansura, and later Thatta.As per historian Rahimdad Khan Molai Shedai " Debal
Debal
was one temple, situated now near Pir Pithho,in which one idol of Deval god was lying. Temple was situated at the center of the town. Sea weaves would hit against the wall of town.The highest dome of the temple would be seen at long distance from the sea. Temple had also four small domes at its four corners. One brass made statue of a man on the horse was affixed on the top of the large dome.A red flag was hoisted on a long bamboo post. It was belief of people of the town that until the flag was hoisted no body could conquer the town
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Surat
8th 2nd (in Gujarat
Gujarat
state) • Density 14,000/km2 (35,000/sq mi) • Metro 5,935,000[4] • Metro rank 9th • Demonym SurtiTime zone IST (UTC+5:30)Pincode(s) 394 XXX, 395 XXXArea code(s) 91-261-XXX-XXXXVehicle registration GJ-05, GJ-19, GJ-28[6]Sex ratio 1.27[7] ♂/♀Coastline 35 kilometres (22 mi)Literacy rate 86.65%[8]Website www.suratmunicipal.gov.in Surat
Surat
is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat. It used to be a large seaport and is now a center for diamond cutting and polishing. It is the eighth largest city and ninth largest urban agglomeration in India. It is the administrative capital of the Surat
Surat
district. The city is located 284 kilometres (176 mi) south of the state capital, Gandhinagar; 265 kilometres (165 mi) south of Ahmedabad; and 289 kilometres (180 mi) north of Mumbai
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Tarkhan Dynasty
The Tarkhan dynasty (Urdu: سلسله ترخان‎), or Turkhan dynasty, was established by Turkic Tarkhan and ruled Sindh, Pakistan from 1554 to 1591 AD.[1] General Mirza Isa Beg founded the Tarkhan dynasty in Sindh
Sindh
after the death of Shah Husayn Arghun of the Arghun dynasty
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Kandahar
Kandahār (/ˈkændəˌhɑːr/) or Qandahār (Pashto: کندهار‎; Dari: قندهار‎; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.[1] Formerly called Alexandria Arachosia, the city is named after Alexander
Alexander
the Great, who founded it in 329 BC around an ancient Arachosian town.[2][3] Kandahar
Kandahar
is located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River, at an elevation of 1,010 m (3,310 ft). It is the capital of Kandahar
Kandahar
Province, and also the center of the larger cultural region called Loy Kandahar. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak
Mirwais Hotak
made the region an independent kingdom and turned Kandahar
Kandahar
into the capital of the Hotak dynasty
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Sulaiman Mountains
The Sulaiman Mountains
Sulaiman Mountains
(Pashto: د كسي غرونه‎; Balochi/Urdu/Persian: کوه سليمان‎), or Kōh-e Sulaymān, are the southern extension of the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
mountain system, located in the Zabul, Kandahar and Loya Paktia
Loya Paktia
regions of Afghanistan, and in the southern Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
( South Waziristan
South Waziristan
and Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan), most of northern Balochistan, and some of southwestern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
in Pakistan. The Sulaimans form the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau
Iranian Plateau
where the Indus River separates it from the Subcontinent
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Rashidun Caliphate
The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎ al-Khilāfa-al-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad
Muhammad
after his death in 632 CE (AH 11). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn)
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Chach Nama
The Chach Nama (Sindhi: چچ نامو‎; Urdu: چچ نامہ‎; "Story of the Chach"), also known as the Fateh nama Sindh (Sindhi: فتح نامه سنڌ‎; "Story of the conquest of Sindh"), and as Tareekh al-Hind wa a's-Sind (Arabic: تاريخ الهند والسند‎; "History of India and Sindh"), is one of the main historical sources for the history of Sindh in the seventh to eighth centuries CE, written in Persian. The text, with the stories of early 8th-century conquests of Muhammad bin Qasim, has been long considered to be a 13th-century translation into Persian by `Ali Kufi of an undated, original but unavailable Arabic text.[1][2][3] According to Manan Ahmed Asif, the text is significant because it was a source of colonial understanding of the origins of Islam in the Indian subcontinent through Sindh region and influenced the debate on the partition of British India
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Hindu
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chat
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