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Raffaello Santi
RAFFAELLO SANZIO DA URBINO (Italian: ; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520), known as RAPHAEL (/ˈræfeɪəl/ , US : /ˈræfiəl, ˌrɑːfaɪˈɛl/ ), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance . His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period
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Baldassare Castiglione
BALDASSARE CASTIGLIONE (Italian: ; December 6, 1478 – February 2, 1529), count of Casatico, was an Italian courtier , diplomat , soldier and a prominent Renaissance author , who is probably most famous for his authorship of The Book of the Courtier . The work was an example of a courtesy book , dealing with questions of the etiquette and morality of the courtier, and was very influential in 16th century European court circles. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 The Book of the Courtier * 3 The Fortunes of the Courtier * 4 Minor works * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYCastiglione was born into an illustrious family at Casatico , near Mantua ( Lombardy ), where his family had constructed an impressive palazzo
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Elisabetta Gonzaga
ELISABETTA GONZAGA (1471–1526) was a noblewoman of the Italian Renaissance , renowned for her cultured and virtuous life. A member of the House of Gonzaga
House of Gonzaga
, she was a sister of Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua
Mantua
and by marriage the Duchess of Urbino
Urbino
. Because her husband, Duke Guidobaldo da Montefeltro
Guidobaldo da Montefeltro
, was impotent, Elisabetta never had children of her own, but did adopt her husband's nephew and heir, Francesco Maria I della Rovere
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The Book Of The Courtier
THE BOOK OF THE COURTIER (Italian : Il Cortegiano ) is a courtesy book . It was written by Baldassare Castiglione over the course of many years, beginning in 1508, and published in 1528 by the Aldine Press in Venice
Venice
just before his death; an English edition was published in 1561. It addresses the constitution of a perfect courtier , and in its last installment, a perfect lady. The Book of the Courtier is an example of the Renaissance
Renaissance
dialogue, a literary form that incorporated elements of drama, conversation, philosophy, and essay. Considered the definitive account of Renaissance
Renaissance
court life , it is cited frequently along with Stefano Guazzo 's The civil conversation (1574) and Giovanni Della Casa
Giovanni Della Casa
's Galateo (1558)
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Bernardo Dovizi
BERNARDO DOVIZI of BIBBIENA (4 August 1470 – 9 November 1520) was an Italian cardinal and comedy writer, known best as CARDINAL BIBBIENA, for the town of Bibbiena , where he was born. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Author * 2 References * 3 Sources * 4 See also * 5 External links BIOGRAPHY THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2017)He received a substantial literary training, and became a preceptor and boon companion of Giovanni dei Medici , the future Pope Leo X (from 1513 to his death in 1521). In November 1494, when the Medici were banished, he supported them. Soon afterwards he was rewarded with the protection of Julius II
Julius II
and many honours at the Roman court. In 1513 his arduous efforts on behalf of his lifelong patron secured the election of Giovanni dei Medici to the pontifical throne
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Pietro Bembo
PIETRO BEMBO, O.S.I.H. (20 May 1470 – either 11 January or 18 January, 1547) was an Italian scholar, poet, literary theorist , member of the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
and a cardinal . He was an influential figure in the development of the Italian language
Italian language
, specifically Tuscan, as a literary medium, codifying the language for standard modern usage. His writings assisted in the 16th-century revival of interest in the works of Petrarch
Petrarch
. Bembo's ideas were also decisive in the formation of the most important secular musical form of the 16th century, the madrigal . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works and influence * 3 Bibliography * 4 References * 5 Notes * 6 External links LIFE Bembo was born in Venice
Venice
to an aristocratic family
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Guidobaldo Da Montefeltro
GUIDOBALDO (GUIDO UBALDO) DA MONTEFELTRO (17 January 1472 – 10 April 1508), also known as GUIDOBALDO I, was an Italian condottiero and the Duke of Urbino
Duke of Urbino
from 1482 to 1508, KG . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 See also * 3 Sources * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn in Gubbio
Gubbio
, he succeeded his father Federico da Montefeltro
Federico da Montefeltro
as Duke of Urbino
Duke of Urbino
in 1482. Guidobaldo married Elisabetta Gonzaga
Elisabetta Gonzaga
, the sister of Francesco II Gonzaga , Marquis of Mantua. Guidobaldo was impotent, and they had no children, but Elisabetta refused to divorce him
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Early Netherlandish Painting
EARLY NETHERLANDISH PAINTING is the work of artists, sometimes known as the FLEMISH PRIMITIVES, active in the Burgundian and Habsburg Netherlands
Netherlands
during the 15th- and 16th-century Northern Renaissance
Northern Renaissance
; especially in the flourishing cities of Bruges
Bruges
, Ghent
Ghent
, Mechelen
Mechelen
, Louvain , Tournai
Tournai
and Brussels
Brussels
, all in contemporary Flanders
Flanders
. Their work follows the International Gothic style and begins approximately with Robert Campin
Robert Campin
and Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
in the early 1420s
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Condottiere
CONDOTTIERI (Italian: ; singular CONDOTTIERO and CONDOTTIERE) were the leaders of the professional military free companies (or mercenaries ) contracted by the Italian city-states
Italian city-states
and the Papacy
Papacy
from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance
Renaissance
. In Renaissance
Renaissance
Italian, condottiero meant "contractor". In contemporary Italian, "condottiero" acquired the broader meaning of "military leader", not restricted to mercenaries. In Italian historiography, Renaissance
Renaissance
mercenary captains are usually called CAPITANI DI VENTURA (literally "venture captains"). The word Condottiere in the English language has come to denote, in the modern sense, any hired soldier
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Duke Of Urbino
The DUCHY OF URBINO was a sovereign state in central-northern Italy. The first lords of Urbino
Urbino
were the House of Montefeltro , who obtained the title of counts from Emperor Frederick II in 1213. The first Duke was Oddantonio , who received the title from Pope Eugene IV in 1443. The duchy's territories occupied approximately the northern part of the modern region of Marche
Marche
: they were bordered by the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
in the east, the Republic of Florence
Republic of Florence
in the west and by the Papal States
Papal States
southwards. In 1523 the capital was moved to Pesaro
Pesaro

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Pope Sixtus IV
POPE SIXTUS IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born FRANCESCO DELLA ROVERE , was Pope
Pope
from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. His accomplishments as pope included building the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
and the creation of the Vatican Archives . A patron of the arts, the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance
Renaissance
into Rome
Rome
with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. Sixtus aided the Spanish Inquisition , though he fought to prevent abuses therein, and annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
. He was famed for his nepotism and was personally involved in the infamous Pazzi conspiracy
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Masque
The MASQUE was a form of festive courtly entertainment that flourished in 16th- and early 17th-century Europe, though it was developed earlier in Italy
Italy
, in forms including the intermedio (a public version of the masque was the pageant ). A masque involved music and dancing, singing and acting, within an elaborate stage design , in which the architectural framing and costumes might be designed by a renowned architect, to present a deferential allegory flattering to the patron. Professional actors and musicians were hired for the speaking and singing parts. Often the masquers, who did not speak or sing, were courtiers: the English queen Anne of Denmark frequently danced with her ladies in masques between 1603 and 1611, and Henry VIII and Charles I of England
Charles I of England
performed in the masques at their courts
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Cardinal (Catholicism)
A CARDINAL ( Latin
Latin
: Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church , and usually (now always for those created when still within the voting age-range) an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. The cardinals of the Church are collectively known as the College of Cardinals . The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and making themselves available individually or in groups to the Pope
Pope
as requested. Most have additional duties, such as leading a diocese or archdiocese or managing a department of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
. A cardinal's primary duty is electing the bishop of Rome
Rome
when the see becomes vacant
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Renaissance Humanism
RENAISSANCE HUMANISM is the study of classical antiquity , at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe
Western Europe
in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. The term Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism is contemporary to that period — Renaissance
Renaissance
(rinascimento "rebirth") and "humanist" (whence modern humanism; also Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism to distinguish it from later developments grouped as humanism ). Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism was a response to the utilitarian approach and what came to be depicted as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism . Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions
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Art Historian
The HISTORY OF ART is the history of any activity or product made by humans in a visual form for aesthetical or communicative purposes, expressing ideas, emotions or, in general, a worldview . Over time visual art has been classified in diverse ways , from the medieval distinction between liberal arts and mechanical arts , to the modern distinction between fine arts and applied arts , or to the many contemporary definitions, which define art as a manifestation of human creativity. The subsequent expansion of the list of principal arts in the 20th century reached to nine: architecture , dance , sculpture , music , painting , poetry (described broadly as a form of literature with aesthetic purpose or function, which also includes the distinct genres of theatre and narrative ), film , photography and graphic arts
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Heinrich Wölfflin
HEINRICH WöLFFLIN (German: ; 21 June 1864, Winterthur
Winterthur
– 19 July 1945, Zurich
Zurich
) was a Swiss art historian , whose objective classifying principles ("painterly " vs. "linear" and the like) were influential in the development of formal analysis in art history in the early 20th century. He taught at Basel, Berlin and Munich in the generation that raised German art history to pre-eminence. His three great books, still consulted, are Renaissance und Barock (1888), Die Klassische Kunst (1898, "Classic Art"), and Kunstgeschichtliche Grundbegriffe (1915, "Principles of Art History")
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