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Raffaello Santi
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino[2] (Italian: [raffaˈɛllo ˈsantsjo da urˈbiːno]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520),[3] known as Raphael
Raphael
(/ˈræfeɪəl/, US: /ˈræfiəl, ˌrɑːfaɪˈɛl/), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.[4] Together with Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[5] Raphael
Raphael
was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career
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Raphael (other)
Raphael
Raphael
was the Italian Renaissance painter Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino. Raphael
Raphael
or Raphaël may also refer to:Contents1 Religion 2 People 3 Films, radio and television 4 Computing 5 Music 6 Others uses 7 See alsoReligion[edit]<
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Cardinal (Catholicism)
A cardinal (Latin: Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually (now always for those created when still within the voting age-range) an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. The cardinals of the Church are collectively known as the College of Cardinals. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and making themselves available individually or in groups to the Pope
Pope
as requested. Most have additional duties, such as leading a diocese or archdiocese or managing a department of the Roman Curia. A cardinal's primary duty is electing the bishop of Rome
Rome
when the see becomes vacant
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Pope Sixtus IV
The pope (Latin: papa from Greek: πάππας pappas,[1] a child's word for "father"),[2] also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest bridge-builder"), is the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.[3] The primacy of the Roman bishop is largely derived from his role as the supposed apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom Jesus is said to have given the Keys of Heaven
Keys of Heaven
and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built. The pope is also head of state of Vatican City,[4] a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within Rome. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.[5] The office of the pope is the papacy
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Masque
The masque was a form of festive courtly entertainment that flourished in 16th- and early 17th-century Europe, though it was developed earlier in Italy, in forms including the intermedio (a public version of the masque was the pageant). A masque involved music and dancing, singing and acting, within an elaborate stage design, in which the architectural framing and costumes might be designed by a renowned architect, to present a deferential allegory flattering to the patron. Professional actors and musicians were hired for the speaking and singing parts. Often the masquers, who did not speak or sing, were courtiers: the English queen Anne of Denmark
Anne of Denmark
frequently danced with her ladies in masques between 1603 and 1611, and Henry VIII and Charles I of England
Charles I of England
performed in the masques at their courts
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Early Netherlandish Painting
Early Netherlandish painting
Early Netherlandish painting
is the work of artists, sometimes known as the Flemish Primitives, active in the Burgundian and Habsburg Netherlands
Netherlands
during the 15th- and 16th-century Northern Renaissance; especially in the flourishing cities of Bruges, Ghent, Mechelen, Louvain, Tournai
Tournai
and Brussels, all in contemporary Belgium. Their work follows the International Gothic
International Gothic
style and begins approximately with Robert Campin
Robert Campin
and Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
in the early 1420s. It lasts at least until the death of Gerard David
Gerard David
in 1523,[1] although many scholars extend it to the start of the Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
in 1566 or 1568 (Max J. Friedländer's acclaimed surveys run through Pieter Bruegel the Elder)
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Guidobaldo Da Montefeltro
Guidobaldo (Guido Ubaldo) da Montefeltro (17 January 1472 – 10 April 1508), also known as Guidobaldo I, was an Italian condottiero and the Duke of Urbino
Duke of Urbino
from 1482 to 1508, KG .Contents1 Biography 2 See also 3 Sources 4 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Gubbio, he succeeded his father Federico da Montefeltro
Federico da Montefeltro
as Duke of Urbino
Duke of Urbino
in 1482. Guidobaldo married Elisabetta Gonzaga, the sister of Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua. Guidobaldo was impotent, and they had no children, but Elisabetta refused to divorce him. He fought as one of Pope Alexander VI's captains alongside the French troops of King Charles VIII of France
Charles VIII of France
during the latter's invasion of southern Italy; later, he was hired by the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
against Charles
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Elisabetta Gonzaga
Elisabetta Gonzaga
Elisabetta Gonzaga
(1471–1526) was a noblewoman of the Italian Renaissance, renowned for her cultured and virtuous life.[1] A member of the House of Gonzaga, she was a sister of Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua
Mantua
and by marriage the Duchess of Urbino. Because her husband, Duke Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, was impotent, Elisabetta never had children of her own, but did adopt her husband's nephew and heir, Francesco Maria I della Rovere.Contents1 Life 2 Cultural references 3 References 4 Additional Reading 5 External linksLife[edit] Elisabetta was born in Mantua, Italy, the second daughter of Federico I Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua
Mantua
and Margaret of Wittelsbach
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Baldassare Castiglione
Baldassare Castiglione
Baldassare Castiglione
(Italian: [baldasˈsaːre kastiʎˈʎoːne]; December 6, 1478 – February 2, 1529),[1] count of Casatico, was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance
Renaissance
author,[2] who is probably most famous for his authorship of The Book of the Courtier. The work was an example of a courtesy book, dealing with questions of the etiquette and morality of the courtier, and was very influential in 16th century European court circles.[3]Contents1 Biography 2 The Book of the Courtier 3 The Fortunes of the Courtier 4 Minor works 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksBiography[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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The Book Of The Courtier
The Book of the Courtier
Courtier
(Italian: Il Cortegiano [il korteˈdʒaːno]) is a courtesy book. It was written by Baldassare Castiglione
Baldassare Castiglione
over the course of many years, beginning in 1508, and published in 1528 by the Aldine Press
Aldine Press
in Venice
Venice
just before his death; an English edition was published in 1561. It addresses the constitution of a perfect courtier, and in its last installment, a perfect lady. The Book of the Courtier
Courtier
is an example of the Renaissance
Renaissance
dialogue, a literary form that incorporated elements of drama, conversation, philosophy, and essay. Considered the definitive account of Renaissance
Renaissance
court life, it is cited frequently along with Stefano Guazzo's The civil conversation (1574) and Giovanni Della Casa's Galateo (1558)
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Bernardo Dovizi
Bernardo
Bernardo
is a given name and less frequently a surname, the Italian, and Spanish, form of Bernard. It may refer to:Contents1 Given name1.1 People 1.2 Fictional characters2 Surname 3 Places 4 See alsoGiven name[edit] People[edit] Bernardo the Japanese (died 1557), early Japanese Christian convert and disciple of Saint Francis Xavier Bernardo Accolti (1465–1536), Italian poet Bernardo Bellotto
Bernardo Bellotto
(c. 1721/2-1780), Venetian urban landscape painter and printmaker in etching Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(born 1940), Italian film director and screenwriter Bernardo Buontalenti
Bernardo Buontalenti
(c
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Pietro Bembo
Pietro Bembo, O.S.I.H. (20 May 1470 – either 11 January[1] or 18 January,[2] 1547) was an Italian scholar, poet, literary theorist, member of the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
and a cardinal. He was an influential figure in the development of the Italian language, specifically Tuscan, as a literary medium, codifying the language for standard modern usage. His writings assisted in the 16th-century revival of interest in the works of Petrarch. Bembo's ideas were also decisive in the formation of the most important secular musical form of the 16th century, the madrigal.[3] The typeface Bembo
Bembo
is named after him.Contents1 Life 2 Works and influence 3 Bibliography 4 References 5 Notes 6 External linksLife[edit] Bembo
Bembo
was born in Venice
Venice
to an aristocratic family
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Renaissance Humanism
Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe
Western Europe
in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. The term Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism is contemporary to that period — Renaissance
Renaissance
(rinascimento, "rebirth") and "humanist" (whence modern humanism; also Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism to distinguish it from later developments grouped as humanism).[1] Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism was a response to the utilitarian approach and what came to be depicted as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism.[2] Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity and thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions
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Condottiere
Condottieri
Condottieri
(Italian: [kondotˈtjɛːri]; singular condottiero and condottiere) were the leaders of the professional military free companies (or mercenaries) contracted by the Italian city-states
Italian city-states
and the Papacy[1] from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance. In Renaissance
Renaissance
Italian, condottiero meant "contractor". In contemporary Italian, "condottiero" acquired the broader meaning of "military leader", not restricted to mercenaries.[2] In Italian historiography, Renaissance
Renaissance
mercenary captains are usually called capitani di ventura (literally "venture captains")
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Self-portrait
A self-portrait is a representation of an artist that is drawn, painted, photographed, or sculpted by that artist. Although self-portraits have been made since the earliest times, it is not until the Early Renaissance
Early Renaissance
in the mid-15th century that artists can be frequently identified depicting themselves as either the main subject, or as important characters in their work. With better and cheaper mirrors, and the advent of the panel portrait, many painters, sculptors and printmakers tried some form of self-portraiture. Portrait of a Man in a Turban
Portrait of a Man in a Turban
by Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
of 1433 may well be the earliest known panel self-portrait.[1] He painted a separate portrait of his wife, and he belonged to the social group that had begun to commission portraits, already more common among wealthy Netherlanders than south of the Alps
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Paolo Uccello
Paolo Uccello
Paolo Uccello
(Italian pronunciation: [ˈpaːolo utˈtʃɛllo]; 1397 – 10 December 1475), born Paolo di Dono, was an Italian painter and mathematician who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art. In his book Lives of the Artists Giorgio Vasari wrote that Uccello was obsessed by his interest in perspective and would stay up all night in his study trying to grasp the exact vanishing point. While his contemporaries used perspective to narrate different or succeeding stories, Uccello used perspective to create a feeling of depth in his paintings. His best known works are the three paintings representing the battle of San Romano, which were wrongly entitled the "Battle of Sant' Egidio of 1416" for a long period of time.[1] Paolo worked in the Late Gothic tradition, emphasizing colour and pageantry rather than the classical realism that other artists were pioneering
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