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Radiocommunication
Radio
Radio
is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.[n 1] When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio
Radio
systems need a transmitter to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation). Radio
Radio
systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves, and radio waves into an electric current. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving
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Radio Broadcasting
Radio
Radio
broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both. Alternatives to terrestrial radio broadcasting include cable radio, local wire television networks, satellite radio, and internet radio via streaming media on the Internet. The signal types can be either analog audio or digital audio.Contents1 History 2 Types2.1 Shortwave 2.2 AM 2.3 FM 2.4 Pirate radio 2.5 Terrestrial digital radio 2.6 Satellite3 Program formats 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] See also: History of radio § Broadcasting, and History of broadcasting The earliest radio stations were radiotelegraphy systems and did not carry audio
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Lee De Forest
Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(August 26, 1873 – June 30, 1961) was an American inventor, self-described "Father of Radio", and a pioneer in the development of sound-on-film recording used for motion pictures. He had over 180 patents, but also a tumultuous career—he boasted that he made, then lost, four fortunes. He was also involved in several major patent lawsuits, spent a substantial part of his income on legal bills, and was even tried (and acquitted) for mail fraud. His most famous invention, in 1906, was the three-element "Audion" (triode) vacuum tube, the first practical amplification device
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Loudspeaker
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer;[1] which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.[2] The most widely used type of speaker in the 2010s is the dynamic speaker, invented in 1925 by Edward W. Kellogg and Chester W. Rice. The dynamic speaker operates on the same basic principle as a dynamic microphone, but in reverse, to produce sound from an electrical signal. When an alternating current electrical audio signal is applied to its voice coil, a coil of wire suspended in a circular gap between the poles of a permanent magnet, the coil is forced to move rapidly back and forth due to Faraday's law of induction, which causes a diaphragm (usually conically shaped) attached to the coil to move back and forth, pushing on the air to create sound waves. Besides this most common method, there are several alternative technologies that can be used to convert an electrical signal into sound
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Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
(March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922)[4] was a Scottish-born[N 2] scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone[7] and founding the American Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph
Telegraph
Company (AT&T) in 1885.[8][9] Bell's father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.[10] His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S
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Photophone
The photophone is a telecommunications device that allows transmission of speech on a beam of light. It was invented jointly by Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter
Charles Sumner Tainter
on February 19, 1880, at Bell's laboratory at 1325 L Street in Washington, D.C.[1][2] Both were later to become full associates in the Volta Laboratory Association, created and financed by Bell. On June 3, 1880, Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message from the roof of the Franklin School to the window of Bell's laboratory, some 213 meters (about 700 ft.) away.[3][4][5][6] Bell believed the photophone was his most important invention
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Heinrich Hertz
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
(German: [hɛɐʦ]; 22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. The unit of frequency — cycle per second — was named the "hertz" in his honor.[1]Contents1 Biography1.1 Death2 Scientific work2.1 Meteorology 2.2 Contact mechanics 2.3 Electromagnetic waves 2.4 Cathode rays3 Nazi
Nazi
persecution 4 Legacy and honors 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBiography[edit] Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
was born in 1857 in Hamburg, then a sovereign state of the German Confederation, into a prosperous and cultured Hanseatic family
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Electromagnetic Radiation
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.[1] It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.[2] Classically, electromagnetic radiation consists of electromagnetic waves, which are synchronized oscillations of electric and magnetic fields that propagate at the speed of light through a vacuum. The oscillations of the two fields are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation, forming a transverse wave. The wavefront of electromagnetic waves emitted from a point source (such as a light bulb) is a sphere. The position of an electromagnetic wave within the electromagnetic spectrum could be characterized by either its frequency of oscillation or its wavelength
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Electrostatic Induction
Electrostatic induction, also known as "electrostatic influence" or simply "influence" in Europe and Latin America, is a redistribution of electrical charge in an object, caused by the influence of nearby charges.[1] In the presence of a charged body, an insulated conductor develops a positive charge on one end and a negative charge on the other end.[1] Induction was discovered by British scientist John Canton in 1753 and Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke in 1762.[2] Electrostatic generators, such as the Wimshurst machine, the Van de Graaff generator and the electrophorus, use this principle
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Electromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field. Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell
mathematically described it as Faraday's law of induction. Lenz's law
Lenz's law
describes the direction of the induced field
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Édouard Branly
Édouard Eugène Désiré Branly (23 October 1844 – 24 March 1940) was a French inventor, physicist and professor at the Institut Catholique de Paris. He is primarily known for his early involvement in wireless telegraphy and his invention of the Branly coherer around 1890.Contents1 Biography 2 Coherer 3 Honours 4 Legacy 5 See also 6 References 7 External links and resourcesBiography[edit] He was born on 23 October 1844. Édouard Branly
Édouard Branly
died in 1940. His funeral was at the Notre Dame cathedral in Paris and was attended by the President of France, Albert Lebrun.[1][2] He was interred in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris.[3] Coherer[edit] Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti's experiments with tubes of metal filings, as reported in "Il Nuovo Cimento" in 1884, led to the development of the first radio wave detector, the coherer, by Branly some years later
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Coherer
The coherer was a primitive form of radio signal detector used in the first radio receivers during the wireless telegraphy era at the beginning of the 20th century. Its use in radio was based on the 1890 findings of French physicist Edouard Branly
Edouard Branly
and adapted by other physicists and inventors over the next ten years. The device consists of a tube or capsule containing two electrodes spaced a small distance apart with loose metal filings in the space between. When a radio frequency signal is applied to the device, the metal particles would cling together or "cohere", reducing the initial high resistance of the device, thereby allowing a much greater direct current to flow through it. In a receiver, the current would activate a bell, or a Morse paper tape recorder to make a record of the received signal
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BBC
The British Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
in Westminster, London
London
and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation[3] and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees
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Terminal Equipment
In telecommunication, the term terminal equipment has the following meanings:Communications equipment at either end of a communications link, used to permit the stations involved to accomplish the mission for which the link was established. In radio-relay systems, equipment used at points where data are inserted or derived, as distinct from equipment used only to relay a reconstituted signal. Telephone
Telephone
and telegraph switchboards and other centrally located equipment at which communications circuits are terminated.See also[edit]Customer-premises equipment
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Radio Times
Radio Times
Radio Times
is a British weekly television and radio programme listings magazine. It was the world's first broadcast listings magazine[2] when it was founded in 1923 by John Reith, then general manager of the BBC
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Wireless LAN
A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using wireless communication within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building. This gives users the ability to move around within a local coverage area and yet still be connected to the network. Through a gateway, a WLAN can also provide a connection to the wider Internet. Most modern WLANs are based on IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11
standards and are marketed under the Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
brand name. Wireless LANs have become popular for use in the home, due to their ease of installation and use
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