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Radio Regulations
The ITU RADIO REGULATIONS (short: RR) regulates on law of nations scale radiocommunication services and the utilisation of radio frequencies. It is the supplementation to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
(ITU Constitution and Convention). In line to the ITU Constitution and Convention and the ITU International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR), this ITU Radio Regulations belong to the basic documents of the International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
. The ITU Radio Regulations comprise and regulate the part of the allocated electromagnetic spectrum (also: radio frequency spectrum ) from 9 kHz to 275 GHz
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ITU-R
The ITU RADIOCOMMUNICATION SECTOR (ITU-R) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU) and is responsible for radio communication. Its role is to manage the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources and to develop standards for radiocommunication systems with the objective of ensuring the effective use of the spectrum . ITU is required, according to its Constitution, to allocate spectrum and register frequency allocation , orbital positions and other parameters of satellites , “in order to avoid harmful interference between radio stations of different countries”. The international spectrum management system is therefore based on regulatory procedures for frequency coordination , notification and registration
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Radio Frequency Spectrum
RADIO FREQUENCY (RF) is any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies that lie in the range extending from around 7003300000000000000♠3 kHz to 7011300000000000000♠300 GHz , which include those frequencies used in radio communication or radar . RF usually refers to electrical rather than mechanical oscillations. However, mechanical RF systems do exist (see mechanical filter and RF MEMS ). Although radio frequency is a rate of oscillation, the term "radio frequency" or its abbreviation "RF" are used as a synonym for radio – i.e., to describe the use of wireless communication, as opposed to communication via electric wires
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Radio Regulation In The United States
REGULATION OF THE RADIO AIRWAVES IN THE UNITED STATES was enforced to eliminate different stations from broadcasting on each other's airwaves . Regulated by the Federal Communications Commission , standardization was encouraged by the chronological and economic advances experienced by the United States of America. Commenced in 1910, before the Communications Act of 1934 was passed, the Federal Radio Commission was the first organization established to control the functioning of radio as a whole through the Commerce Clause. Airwaves run across interstate and international waters, leading to some form of regulation. As years progressed, deregulation was strongly encouraged to provide a little independence from the government. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Deregulation * 3 Programming trends in radio * 4 Evolution of federal policy decisions * 5 Legal cases * 6 References HISTORYTechnology was the driving force in encouraging regulation of broadcast
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Abbreviation
An ABBREVIATION (from Latin
Latin
brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr., abbrv., or abbrev. In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions , crasis , acronyms , or initialisms , with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connoted by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. :p167An abbreviation is a shortening by any method; a contraction is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements; an abbreviation may be made by omitting certain portions from the interior or by cutting off a part. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction
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Treaty
A TREATY is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations . A treaty may also be known as an (INTERNATIONAL) AGREEMENT, PROTOCOL, COVENANT, CONVENTION, PACT, or EXCHANGE OF LETTERS, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law, equally considered treaties and the rules are the same. Treaties can be loosely compared to contracts : both are means of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves, and a party to either that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law
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International Law
INTERNATIONAL LAW is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations . It serves as a framework for the practice of stable and organized international relations. International law
International law
differs from state-based legal systems in that it is primarily applicable to countries rather than to private citizens. National law may become international law when treaties delegate national jurisdiction to supranational tribunals such as the European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
or the International Criminal Court . Treaties such as the Geneva Conventions may require national law to conform to respective parts. Much of international law is consent-based governance. This means that a state member is not obliged to abide by this type of international law, unless it has expressly consented to a particular course of conduct
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Electromagnetic Spectrum
The ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM is a collective term; referring to the entire range and scope of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their respective, associated photon wavelengths. The electromagnetic spectrum extends from below the low frequencies used for modern radio communication to gamma radiation at the short-wavelength (high-frequency) end, thereby covering wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atom . Visible light lies toward the shorter end, with wavelengths from 400 to 700 nanometres . The limit for long wavelengths is the size of the universe itself, while it is thought that the short wavelength limit is in the vicinity of the Planck length . Until the middle of the 20th century it was believed by most physicists that this spectrum was infinite and continuous . Nearly all types of electromagnetic radiation can be used for spectroscopy , to study and characterize matter
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International Telecommunication Union
The INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU; French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH UNION (French: Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies . The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum , promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits , works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards
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Constitution And Convention Of The International Telecommunication Union
The CONSTITUTION AND CONVENTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (short: ITU CONSTITUTION AND CONVENTION also: CS CV) is an international treaty , signed and ratified by almost all countries of the world. The treaty is the founding document of the International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
(ITU), a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
. The convention was concluded on 22 December 1992 in Geneva
Geneva
. The ITU Constitution and Convention succeeded and replaced the 1865 INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CONVENTION. As of 2016, the ITU Constitution and Convention has 193 state parties, which includes 192 United Nations
United Nations
member states plus the Holy See
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Radiocommunication Service
RADIOCOMMUNICATION SERVICE is according to ARTICLE 1.19 of the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union´s (ITU)RR , defined as “a service…involving the transmission , emission and/or reception of radio waves for specific telecommunication purposes”. Radiocommunication is sub-divided into space and terrestrial radiocommunication. Space radiocommunication is defined in RR Article 1 as “any radiocommunication involving the use of one or more space stations or the use of one or more reflecting satellites or other objects in space”. Terrestrial radiocommunication is defined as “any radiocommunication other than space radiocommunication or radio astronomy”. SUB-SETS OF SERVICES AND BRANCHESSome services are a sub-set of another service
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World Radiocommunication Conference
WORLD RADIOCOMMUNICATION CONFERENCE (WRC) is organized by ITU to review, and, as necessary, revise the Radio Regulations , the international treaty governing the use of the radio-frequency spectrum and the geostationary-satellite and non-geostationary-satellite orbits. It is held every three to four years. Prior to 1993 it was called the World administrative radio conference WARC; in 1992 at an Additional Plenipotentiary Conference in Geneva the ITU was restructured and later conferences became the WRC. At the 2015 conference (WRC-15), the ITU deferred their decision on whether to abolish the leap second to 2023. The next World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-19) will take place from 28 October to 22 November 2019
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Maritime Mobile Service
A MARITIME MOBILE SERVICE (also MMS or MARITIME MOBILE RADIOCOMMUNICATION SERVICE) is a mobile service between coast stations and ship stations , or between ship stations, or between associated on-board communication stations . The service may also be used by survival craft stations and emergency position-indicating radiobeacon stations . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Frequency allocation * 3 See also * 4 References CLASSIFICATIONThis radiocommunication service is classified in accordance with ITU Radio Regulations (article 1) as follows: * Maritime mobile service * Maritime mobile-satellite service (article 1.29) * Port operations service (article 1.30)1 * Ship movement service (article 1.31)FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONThe allocation of radio frequencies is provided according to Article 5 of the ITU Radio Regulations (edition 2012)
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Aeronautical Mobile Service
AERONAUTICAL MOBILE SERVICE (short: AMS; also: AERONAUTICAL MOBILE RADIOCOMMUNICATION SERVICE\') is – according to Article 1.32 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as «A mobile service between aeronautical stations and aircraft stations , or between aircraft stations, in which survival craft stations may participate; emergency position-indicating radiobeacon stations may also participate in this service on designated distress and emergency frequencies.» See also Main articles: Radio station and Radiocommunication service CLASSIFICATIONVariations of this radiocommunication service in line to the ITU Radio Regulations article 1 are as follows : Mobile service (article 1.24) * AERONAUTICAL MOBILE SERVICE (article 1.32) * Aeronautical mobile (R)° service (article 1.33) * Aeronautical mobile (OR)°° service (article 1.33)* Aeronautical mobile-satellite service (article 1.35)


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Radio Station
A RADIO STATION is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves . Generally, it is a receiver or transmitter , an antenna , and some smaller additional equipment necessary to operate them. Radio stations
Radio stations
play a vital role in communication technology as they are heavily relied on to transfer data and information across the world. More broadly, the definition of a radio station includes the aforementioned equipment and a building in which it is installed. Such a station may include several "radio stations" defined above (i.e. several sets of receivers or transmitters installed in one building but functioning independently, and several antennas installed on a field next to the building). This definition of a radio station is more often referred to as a transmitter site, transmitter station , transmission facility or transmitting station
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