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Radia Perlman
Radia Joy Perlman (born January 1, 1951) is an American computer programmer and network engineer. She is most famous for her invention of the spanning-tree protocol (STP), which is fundamental to the operation of network bridges, while working for Digital Equipment Corporation. She also made large contributions to many other areas of network design and standardization, such as link-state routing protocols. More recently she has invented the TRILL protocol to correct some of the shortcomings of spanning-trees. She is currently employed by Dell EMC.Contents1 Early life 2 Education 3 Career3.1 Spanning Tree Protocol 3.2 Other network protocols4 Awards 5 Bibliography 6 References 7 External linksEarly life[edit] Perlman grew up near Asbury Park, New Jersey. Both of her parents worked as engineers for the US government. Her father worked on radar and her mother was a mathematician by training who worked as computer programmer
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Portsmouth, Virginia
Portsmouth
Portsmouth
is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 95,535.[3] It is part of the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
metropolitan area. The Norfolk Naval Shipyard, often called the Norfolk Navy Yard, is a historic and active U.S. Navy facility that is actually located in Portsmouth
Portsmouth
rather than Norfolk; the original name "Gosport" was changed to "Norfolk" to reflect its location in what is now the former Norfolk County, Virginia. The shipyard upgrades, remodels, and repairs ships of the US Navy and is one of the few facilities in the world with the capability to dry dock an aircraft carrier. Directly opposite Norfolk, the city of Portsmouth
Portsmouth
also has miles of waterfront land on the Elizabeth River as part of the harbor of Hampton Roads
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Network Topology
Network topology
Network topology
is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a communication network.[1][2] Network topology
Network topology
is the topological[3] structure of a network and may be depicted physically or logically. It is an application of graph theory[4] wherein communicating devices are modeled as nodes and the connections between the devices are modeled as links or lines between the nodes. Physical topology is the placement of the various components of a network (e.g., device location and cable installation), while logical topology illustrates how data flows within a network. Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, transmission rates, or signal types may differ between two different networks, yet their topologies may be identical. A network’s physical topology is a particular concern of the physical layer of the OSI model
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MIT
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the physical sciences and engineering, but more recently in biology, economics, linguistics and management as well
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Routing
Routing
Routing
is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network, or between or across multiple networks. Routing
Routing
is performed for many types of networks, including circuit-switched networks, such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN), and computer networks, such as the Internet. In packet switching networks, routing is the higher-level decision making that directs network packets from their source toward their destination through intermediate network nodes by specific packet forwarding mechanisms. Packet forwarding is the transit of logically addressed network packets from one network interface to another. Intermediate nodes are typically network hardware devices such as routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. General-purpose computers also forward packets and perform routing, although they have no specially optimized hardware for the task
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University Of Washington
The University of Washington
University of Washington
(commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub)[5] is a public flagship research university located in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1861, Washington is one of the oldest, largest, and most recognized universities in the United States. It was first established in downtown Seattle
Seattle
a decade after the city's founding, to aid the economic development of Seattle. Today, the University's 703-acre main Seattle
Seattle
campus is situated in the University District above the Montlake Cut, within the urban Puget Sound region
Puget Sound region
of the Pacific Northwest, and it has since then expanded with two additional campuses in Tacoma and Bothell
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Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University
is a private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for clergyman John Harvard (its first benefactor), its history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities.[8] Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning,[9] and the Harvard Corporation
Harvard Corporation
(formally, the President and Fellows of Harvard College) is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites.[10][11] Following the American Civil War, President Charles W
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SIGCOMM Award
SIGCOMM is the Association for Computing Machinery's Special
Special
Interest Group on Data Communications, which specializes in the field of communication and computer networks. It is also the name of an annual 'flagship' conference, organized by SIGCOMM, which is considered to be the leading conference in data communications and networking in the world.[1][2] Known to have an extremely low acceptance rate (~10%), many of the landmark works in Networking and Communications have been published through it. Of late, a number of workshops related to networking are also co-located with the SIGCOMM conference
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Local Area Network
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.[1] By contrast, a wide area network (WAN) not only covers a larger geographic distance, but also generally involves leased telecommunication circuits. Ethernet
Ethernet
and Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
are the two most common technologies in use for local area networks. Historical technologies include ARCNET, Token ring, and AppleTalk.Contents1 History 2 Cabling 3 Wireless media 4 Technical aspects 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The increasing demand and use of computers in universities and research labs in the late 1960s generated the need to provide high-speed interconnections between computer systems
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Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
/ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).[1] It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3,[2] and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet
Ethernet
has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET. The original 10BASE5
10BASE5
Ethernet
Ethernet
uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet
Ethernet
variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches
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MAC Addresses
A media access control address (MAC address) of a device is a unique identifier assigned to network interface controllers for communications at the data link layer of a network segment. MAC addresses are used as a network address for most IEEE 802
IEEE 802
network technologies, including Ethernet
Ethernet
and Wi-Fi. In this context, MAC addresses are used in the medium access control protocol sublayer. MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a network interface controller (NIC) and are stored in its hardware, such as the card's read-only memory or some other firmware mechanism. If assigned by the manufacturer, a MAC address
MAC address
usually encodes the manufacturer's registered identification number and may be referred to as the burned-in address (BIA)
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Institute Of Electrical And Electronics Engineers
[1] Electronics
Electronics
is the science of dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors. Electronics
Electronics
deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, optoelectronics, and sensors, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies
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Debuggers
A debugger or debugging tool is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs (the "target" program). The code to be examined might alternatively be running on an instruction set simulator (ISS), a technique that allows great power in its ability to halt when specific conditions are encountered, but which will typically be somewhat slower than executing the code directly on the appropriate (or the same) processor. Some debuggers offer two modes of operation, full or partial simulation, to limit this impact. A "trap" occurs when the program cannot normally continue because of a programming bug or invalid data. For example, the program might have tried to use an instruction not available on the current version of the CPU or attempted to access unavailable or protected memory
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Decnet
DECnet is a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation. Originally released in 1975 in order to connect two PDP-11
PDP-11
minicomputers, it evolved into one of the first peer-to-peer network architectures, thus transforming DEC into a networking powerhouse in the 1980s. Initially built with three layers, it later (1982) evolved into a seven-layer OSI-compliant networking protocol. DECnet was built right into the DEC flagship operating system VMS since its inception. Later Digital ported it to Ultrix, as well as Apple Macintosh
Apple Macintosh
and IBM PC
IBM PC
running variants of DOS
DOS
and Microsoft Windows
Windows
under the name DEC Pathworks, allowing these systems to connect to DECnet networks of VAX
VAX
machines as terminal nodes
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Peer-to-peer
Peer-to-peer
Peer-to-peer
(P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes. Peers make a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts.[1] Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client-server model in which the consumption and supply of resources is divided
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Connectionless Network Protocol
Connectionless-mode Network Service (CLNS) or simply Connectionless Network Service is an OSI Network Layer datagram service that does not require a circuit to be established before data is transmitted, and routes messages to their destinations independently of any other messages.[1][2] As such it is a "best-effort" rather than a "reliable" delivery service. CLNS is not an Internet service, but provides capabilities in an OSI network environment similar to those provided by the Internet Protocol (IP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).Contents1 Connectionless-mode Network Protocol (CLNP) 2 Transport Protocol Class 4 (TP4) in conjunction with CLNS 3 Protocols providing CLNS 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksConnectionless-mode Network Protocol (CLNP)[edit] Is an OSI protocol deployment. CLNS is the service provided by the Connectionless-mode Network Protocol (CLNP)
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