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Racibórz
Racibórz
Racibórz
[raˈt͡ɕibuʂ] (German: Ratibor, Czech: Ratiboř, Silesian: Raćibůrz) is a town in Silesian Voivodeship
Silesian Voivodeship
in southern Poland. It is the administrative seat of Racibórz
Racibórz
County. With Opole, Racibórz
Racibórz
is one of the historic capitals of Upper Silesia, being the residence of the Dukes of Racibórz
Racibórz
from 1172 to 1521.Contents1 Geography 2 History2.1 Middle Ages 2.2 Modern Era3 People 4 Districts 5 Twin towns — sister cities 6 Gallery 7 External links 8 ReferencesGeography[edit] The town is situated in the southwest of the voivodeship on the upper Oder
Oder
river, near the border with the Polish Opole
Opole
Voivodeship and the Czech Republic
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Kraków
Kraków
Kraków
(Polish: [ˈkrakuf] ( listen)), also Cracow or Krakow (UK: /ˈkrækaʊ/; US: /ˈkrɑː-/),[2][3] is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula
Vistula
River (Polish: Wisła) in the Lesser Poland
Poland
(Polish: Małopolska) region, the city dates back to the 7th century.[4] Kraków
Kraków
has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life and is one of Poland's most important economic hubs. It was the capital of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
from 1038 to 1569; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1596[5], the Free City of Kraków
Free City of Kraków
from 1815 to 1846; the Grand Duchy of Cracow
Grand Duchy of Cracow
from 1846 to 1918; and Kraków Voivodeship from the 14th century to 1998
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Opole Voivodeship
Opole
Opole
Voivodeship, or Opole
Opole
Province[1] (Polish: województwo opolskie [vɔjɛˈvutstfɔ ɔˈpɔlskʲɛ], German: Woiwodschaft Oppeln), is the smallest and least populated voivodeship (province) of Poland. The province's name derives from that of the region's capital and largest city, Opole. It is part of Upper Silesia
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Kingdom Of Poland (1385–1569)
The Kingdom of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
joined in a personal union created by the Union of Krewo
Union of Krewo
(1385). The union was transformed into a closer one by the Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
in 1569, which was shortly followed by the end of the Jagiellon dynasty, which had ruled Poland
Poland
for two centuries. See also[edit]Crown of the Kingdom of Poland Culture of medieval Poland History of Poland
Poland
during the Jagiellon dynasty
Jagiellon dynasty
(1386–1572)Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kingdom of Poland
Poland
— Jagiellonian Dynasty (1385–1569).References[edit]^ " Gaude Mater Polonia
Gaude Mater Polonia
Creation and History"
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Congress Of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna
Vienna
(German: Wiener Kongress) was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna
Vienna
from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe
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German Mediatisation
German mediatization
German mediatization
(English: /miːdiətaɪˈzeɪʃən/; German: deutsche Mediatisierung) was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region (until 1806 the Holy Roman Empire) by means of the mass mediatization and secularization[1] of a large number of Imperial Estates: ecclesiastical principalities, free imperial cities, secular principalities and other minor self-ruling entities that lost their independent status and were absorbed into the remaining states. In the strict sense of the word, mediatization consists in the subsumption of an immediate (German: unmittelbar) state into another state, thus becoming mediate (mittelbar), while generally leaving the dispossessed ruler with his private estates and a number of privileges and feudal rights, such as low justice
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Kingdom Of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
(German: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia
Prussia
between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium
Belgium
and the Czech Republic.[3] It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire
German Empire
until its dissolution in 1918.[3] Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin. The kings of Prussia
Prussia
were from the House of Hohenzollern
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Czech Language
Czech (/tʃɛk/; čeština Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛʃcɪna]), historically also Bohemian[6] (/boʊˈhiːmiən, bə-/;[7] lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language
West Slavic language
of the Czech–Slovak group.[6] Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree.[8] Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin[9] and German.[10] The Czech–Slovak group developed within West Slavic
West Slavic
in the high medieval period, and the standardization of Czech and Slovak within the Czech–Slovak dialect continuum emerged in the early modern period
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Silesian Language
Silesian or Upper Silesian (Silesian: ślōnskŏ gŏdka, ślůnsko godka (Silesian pronunciation: [ˈɕlonskɔ 'gɔtka]), Czech: Slezština, Polish: język śląski / etnolekt śląski, German: Wasserpolnisch) is a West Slavic lect, part of its Lechitic group.[2] Its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by Central German
Central German
due to the existence of numerous Silesian German speakers in the area prior to World War II
World War II
and after, until the 1990s.[4] There is no consensus on whether Silesian is a separate language or a somewhat divergent dialect of Polish.[citation needed]Contents1 Distribution 2 Grammar 3 Example 4 Dialects of Silesian 5 Dialect vs
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Czech Republic
The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(/ˈtʃɛk rɪˈpʌblɪk/ ( listen)[10] Czech: Česká republika, Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka] ( listen)),[11] also known as Czechia[12] (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ ( listen); Czech: Česko, pronounced [ˈtʃɛsko] ( listen)), is a landlocked country in Central Europe
Europe
bordered by Germany
Germany
to the west, Austria
Austria
to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland
Poland
to the northeast.[13] The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.6 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Opawskie Mountains
The Opawskie Mountains
Opawskie Mountains
(Polish: Góry Opawskie, German: Oppagebirge) or Zlatohorská Highlands (Czech: Zlatohorská vrchovina, German: Zuckmanteler Bergland) are a mountain range of the Eastern Sudetes
Eastern Sudetes
in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Poland.Contents1 Location 2 Towns and villages2.1 Poland 2.2 Czech RepublicLocation[edit] The Opawskie Mountains
Opawskie Mountains
stretch from northern Czech Silesia
Czech Silesia
into Polish Upper Silesia, the eastern continuation of the Golden Mountains range. It borders on the Nízký Jeseník
Jeseník
range in the south and the Hrubý Jeseník
Jeseník
(High Ash Mountains) in the southwest. The Polish part of the range includes the protected area known as Opawskie Mountains Landscape Park
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Eastern Sudetes
The Eastern Sudetes
Sudetes
(Polish: Sudety Wschodnie, Czech: Východní Sudety or Jesenická oblast) are the Eastern part of the Sudetes mountains on the border of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Poland
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Silesian Upland
Silesian Upland
Silesian Upland
or Silesian Highland (Polish: Wyżyna Śląska) is a highland located in Silesia
Silesia
and Lesser Poland, Poland. Its highest point is the St. Anne Mountain (400 m). See also[edit]Silesian Lowlands Silesian-Lusatian Lowlands Silesian Foothills Silesian-Moravian FoothillsThis Poland
Poland
location article is a stub
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Wrocław
Wrocław
Wrocław
(/ˈvrɔːtslɑːf/;[2] Polish: [ˈvrɔt͡swaf] ( listen); German: Breslau, pronounced [ˈbʁɛslaʊ̯]; Czech: Vratislav; Latin: Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland. It lies on the banks of the River Oder
Oder
in the Silesian Lowlands
Silesian Lowlands
of Central Europe, roughly 350 kilometres (220 mi) from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to the north and 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the Sudeten Mountains to the south. The population of Wrocław
Wrocław
in 2017 was 638,364, making it the fourth-largest city in Poland
Poland
and the main city of Wrocław agglomeration. Wrocław
Wrocław
is the historical capital of Silesia
Silesia
and Lower Silesia. Today, it is the capital of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship
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