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Rabbinic Literature
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term Sifrut Hazal (Hebrew: ספרות חז"ל‎ "Literature [of our] sages," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim, Midrash
Midrash
(Hebrew: מדרש‎), and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts. This article discusses rabbinic literature in both senses
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Chazal
Chazal or Ḥazal (Hebrew: חז"ל‬), an acronym for the Hebrew "Ḥakhameinu Zikhram Liv'rakha" (חכמינו זכרונם לברכה‬, "Our Sages, may their memory be blessed"), refers to all Jewish sages of the Mishna, Tosefta
Tosefta
and Talmud
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Outline Of Judaism
Outline may refer to: Outline (list), a document summary, in hierarchical list format Outline (software), a note-taking application Outline drawing, a sketch depicting the outer edges of a person or object, without interior details or shading Outline typeface, in typography The
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Beit Yosef (book)
Beit Yosef (Hebrew: בית יוסף‎) — also transliterated Beth Yosef — is a book by Rabbi Joseph Caro. It is a long, detailed commentary on the Arba'ah Turim. It served as a precursor to the Shulchan Aruch, which Rabbi Caro wrote later in his life. For more information on this book, see the section Beth Yosef (in the article Shulchan Aruch).This article about a Judaism-related book or text is a stub
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Targum
The targumim (singular: "targum", Hebrew: תרגום‬) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic. That had become necessary near the end of the 1st century BCE, as the common language was in transition and Hebrew was used for little more than schooling and worship.[1] The noun "Targum" is derived from the early semitic quadriliteral root trgm, and the Akkadian term targummanu refers to "translator, interpreter".[2] It occurs in the Hebrew Bible in Ezra 4:7 "..
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Jewish Holidays
Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim (ימים טובים, "Good Days", or singular יום טוב Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew [English: /ˈjɔːm ˈtɔːv, joʊm ˈtoʊv/]),[1] are holidays observed in Judaism
Judaism
and by Jews[Note 1] throughout the Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
and include religious, cultural and national elements, derived from three sources: Biblical mitzvot ("commandments"); rabbinic mandates; Jewish history
Jewish history
and the history of the State of Israel. Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
occur on the same dates every year in the Hebrew calendar, but the dates vary in the Gregorian
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Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim
(Hebrew: אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‬), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher (Cologne, 1270 – Toledo, Spain
Toledo, Spain
c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the Tur and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch.Contents1 Meaning of the name 2 Arrangement and contents 3 Later developments 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksMeaning of the name[edit] The title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest's breastplate
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Bar And Bat Mitzvah
Bar
Bar
Mitzvah (Hebrew: בַּר מִצְוָה‬) is a Jewish
Jewish
coming of age ritual for boys. Bat Mitzvah (Hebrew: בַּת מִצְוָה‬; Ashkenazi pronunciation: Bas Mitzvah) is a Jewish
Jewish
coming of age ritual for girls. The plural is B'nai Mitzvah for boys, and B'not Mitzvah (Ashkenazi pronunciation: B'nos Mitzvah) for girls. According to Jewish
Jewish
law, when Jewish
Jewish
boys become 13 years old, they become accountable for their actions and become a bar mitzvah. A girl becomes a bat mitzvah at the age of 12 according to Orthodox and Conservative Jews, and at the age of 13 according to Reform Jews.[1] Prior to reaching bar mitzvah age, the child's parents hold the responsibility for the child's actions
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Brit Milah
The brit milah (Hebrew: בְּרִית מִילָה‬, pronounced [bʁit miˈla]; Ashkenazi pronunciation: [bʁis ˈmilə], "covenant of circumcision"; Yiddish
Yiddish
pronunciation: bris [bʀɪs]) is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel ("circumciser") on the eighth day of the infant's life
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Laws And Customs Of The Land Of Israel In Judaism
Laws and customs of the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
in Judaism
Judaism
(Hebrew: מצוות התלויות בארץ‎; translit. Mitzvot Ha'teluyot Be'aretz) are special Jewish laws that apply only to the Land of Israel. According to a standard view, 26 of the 613 mitzvot
613 mitzvot
apply only in the Land of Israel.[1] Overall, the laws and customs may be classified as follows:Laws that were in force at the time of the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
and in connection with the Temple service
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Tzedakah
Tzedakah
Tzedakah
[tsedaˈka] or Ṣ'daqah [sˤəðaːˈqaː] in Classical Hebrew (Hebrew: צדקה‎, is a Hebrew word literally meaning justice or righteousness but commonly used to signify charity - [1] though it is a different concept from the modern English understanding of "charity," which is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity, where as tzedakah is an obligation. In Judaism, tzedakah refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, which Judaism
Judaism
emphasizes is an important part of living a spiritual life. Unlike voluntary philanthropy, tzedakah is seen as a religious obligation that must be performed regardless of financial standing, even by poor people
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Romaniote Jews
The Romaniote Jews
Jews
or Romaniots (Greek: Ῥωμανιῶτες, Rhōmaniṓtes; Hebrew: רומניוטים‬, Romanyotim) are an ethnic Jewish community with distinctive cultural features who have lived in Greece
Greece
and neighboring Eastern Mediterranean countries for more than 2,000 years, being the oldest Jewish community in the Eurasian continent. Their distinct language was Judaeo-Greek, a Greek dialect, and is today modern Greek or the languages of their new home countries. They derived their name from the old name for the people of the Byzantine Empire, Romaioi. Large communities were located in Thebes, Ioannina, Chalcis, Corfu, Arta, Preveza, Volos, Patras, Corinth, and on the islands of Zakynthos, Lesbos, Chios, Samos, Rhodes, and Cyprus, among others
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Jewish Identity
Jewish identity
Jewish identity
is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as a Jew and as relating to being Jewish.[1] Under a broader definition, Jewish identity
Jewish identity
does not depend on whether a person is regarded as a Jew by others, or by an external set of religious, or legal, or sociological norms. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
does not need to imply religious orthodoxy. Accordingly, Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can be cultural in nature. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can involve ties to the Jewish community. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
bases Jewishness on matrilineal descent. According to Jewish law (halacha), all those born of a Jewish mother are considered Jewish, regardless of personal beliefs or level of observance of Jewish law. Jews
Jews
who are atheists may have a Jewish identity
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Jewish Peoplehood
Jewish
Jewish
peoplehood (Hebrew: עמיות יהודית, Amiut Yehudit) is the conception of the awareness of the underlying unity that makes an individual a part of the Jewish
Jewish
people.[1] The concept of peoplehood has a double meaning. The first is descriptive, as a concept factually describing the existence of the Jews
Jews
as a people. The second is normative, as a value that describes the feeling of belonging and commitment to the Jewish
Jewish
people.[2] Some believe that the concept of Jewish
Jewish
peoplehood is a paradigm shift in Jewish
Jewish
life
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Names Of God In Judaism
The name of God
God
used in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
is the Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
YHWH (יהוה‬). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah
Jehovah
and Yahweh[1] and written in most English editions of the Bible
Bible
as "the Lord" owing to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too sacred to be uttered
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai—— Leviticus —— Sifra
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