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RIPE
Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE, French for "European IP Networks") is a forum open to all parties with an interest in the technical development of the Internet. The RIPE
RIPE
community’s objective is to ensure that the administrative and technical coordination necessary to maintain and develop the Internet
Internet
continues. It is not a standards body like the Internet
Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) and does not deal with domain names like ICANN. RIPE
RIPE
is not a legal entity and has no formal membership. This means that anybody who is interested in the work of RIPE
RIPE
can participate through mailing lists and by attending meetings. RIPE
RIPE
has a chair to keep an eye on work between RIPE
RIPE
meetings and to act as its external liaison
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EUnet
The roots of EUnet
EUnet
(originally an abbreviation for European UNIX Network) go back to 1982[1] and the first international UUCP connections[2]. From a very loose collaboration of individual sites under the auspices of the EUUG (European UNIX
UNIX
Users Group) (later EurOpen), it evolved to the fully commercial entity EUnet International Ltd. On January 1, 1990 EUnet
EUnet
began selling Internet access to non-academic customers in the Netherlands,[3] making them one of the first companies to sell Internet access to the general public. In April 1998 the company was sold to Qwest
Qwest
Communications International[4], which in turn later merged EUnet
EUnet
into the illfated joint-venture KPNQwest[5]
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Open Systems Interconnection
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) is an effort to standardize computer networking that was started in 1977 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), along with the ITU-T.[1]Contents1 History 2 Criticism 3 ISO/IEC 7498 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] Prior to OSI, networking was largely either government-sponsored ( ARPANET
ARPANET
in the US, CYCLADES
CYCLADES
in France) or vendor-developed and proprietary standards (such as the System network architecture (SNA) of IBM
IBM
and DECnet of Digital Equipment Corporation). An Experimental Packet Switched system in the UK circa 1973, also identified the need to define higher level protocols
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JANET
Janet is a high-speed network for the UK research and education community provided by Jisc, a not-for-profit company set up to provide computing support for education.[2] It serves 18 millions users and is the busiest National Research and Education Network
National Research and Education Network
in Europe by volume of data carried.[3] JANET was previously a private, UK government-funded organisation, which provided the Janet computer network and related collaborative services to UK research and education. All further- and higher-education organisations in the UK are connected to the Janet network, as are all the Research Councils; the majority of these sites are connected via 20 metropolitan area networks across the UK (though Janet refers to these as Regional Networks, emphasising that Janet connections are not just confined to a metropolitan area[4])
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Internet Service Providers
An Internet
Internet
service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet
Internet
service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise
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IP Address
An Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
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SWITCH Information Technology Services
SWITCH is a Swiss foundation managing the .ch
.ch
and .li country-code top-level domains for Switzerland
Switzerland
and Liechtenstein, respectively. As the Swiss national research and education network organisation, SWITCH also manages the educational networks among Swiss universities and research facilities, and the links to other (non Swiss) university networks. It also mirrors open source software (including several distributions of Linux, e.g. (K)Ubuntu). External links[edit]SWITCH .ch
.ch
homepage switch networkThis article about an IT-related or software-related company or corporation is a stub
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NORDUnet
NORDUnet is an international collaboration between the National research and education networks in the Nordic countries. The members of NORDUnet are: SUNET of Sweden UNINETT
UNINETT
of Norway FUNET
FUNET
of Finland Forskningsnettet of Denmark RHnet of IcelandContents1 Network 2 History 3 Distinction 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksNetwork[edit] NORDUnet interconnects the Nordic national research and education networks and connects them to the worldwide network for research and education and to the general purpose Internet. NORDUnet provides its services by a combination of leased lines and Internet
Internet
services provided by other international operators
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HEPNET
HEPnet or the High-Energy Physics
Physics
Network is a telecommunications network for researchers in high-energy physics. It originated in the United States, but that has spread to most places involved in such research. Well-known sites include Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory
and Lawrence Berkeley. See also[edit]Energy Sciences NetworkExternal links[edit] HEPnet siteThis physics-related article is a stub
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GARR
GARR
GARR
(Gruppo per l'Armonizzazione delle Reti della Ricerca) is the Italian national computer network for universities and research. The main objective of GARR
GARR
is to design and manage a very high-performance network infrastructure that delivers advanced services to the Italian academic and scientific community. The GARR
GARR
network is connected to other national research and education networks in Europe and the world, is an integral part of the global Internet, and thereby promotes the exchange and collaboration between researchers, teachers and students worldwide.Contents1 History 2 The GARR
GARR
network 3 Services for users 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The GARR
GARR
network originates from the wish to unify and harmonise the previously existing different data networks of research centres and universities
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International Nongovernmental Organization
An international non-governmental organization (INGO) has the same mission as a non-governmental organization (NGO), but it is international in scope and has outposts around the world to deal with specific issues in many countries. Both terms, NGO and INGO, should be differentiated from intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), which describes groups such as the United Nations
United Nations
or the International Labour Organization. An INGO may be founded by private philanthropy, such as the Carnegie, Rockefeller, Gates, Zator and Ford Foundations, or as an adjunct to existing international organizations, such as the Catholic or Lutheran churches
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet
Internet
Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California, United States.Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capabilities 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy3 Uses3.1 In legal evidence3.1.1 Civil litigation3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska3.1.2 Patent law 3.1.3 Limitations of utility4 Legal status 5 Archived content legal issues5.1 Scientology 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc. 5.3 Suzanne Shell 5.4 Daniel Davydiuk6 Censorship and other threats 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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Singel
The Singel
Singel
is a canal in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
which encircled the city in the Middle Ages. It served as a moat around the city until 1585, when Amsterdam
Amsterdam
expanded beyond the Singel. The canal runs from the IJ bay, near Central Station, to the Muntplein square, where it meets the Amstel
Amstel
river. It is now the inner-most canal in Amsterdam's semicircular ring of canals. The canal should not be confused with the Singelgracht, which became the outer limit of the city during the Dutch Golden Age
Dutch Golden Age
in the 17th Century. Other Dutch towns also have ring-shaped canals named Singel. Locations along the Singel[edit] Amsterdam's famous flower market, Bloemenmarkt, is located along the Singel
Singel
between Koningsplein
Koningsplein
and Muntplein squares
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IP-based Network
The Internet protocol
Internet protocol
suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet
Internet
and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) and the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP). It is occasionally known as the Department of Defense (DoD) model, because the development of the networking method was funded by the United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
through DARPA. The Internet protocol
Internet protocol
suite provides end-to-end data communication specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received
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CERN
Coordinates: 46°14′03″N 6°03′10″E / 46.23417°N 6.05278°E / 46.23417; 6.05278European Organization for Nuclear Research Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaireMember statesFormation September 29, 1954; 63 years ago (1954-09-29)[1]Headquarters Meyrin, Canton of Geneva, SwitzerlandMembership22 countries Austria  Belgium  Bulgaria  Czech Republic  Denmark  Finland  France  Germany  Greece  Hungary  Israel  Italy  Netherlands  Norway  Poland  Portugal  Romania  Slovakia  Spain  Sweden   Switzerland  United Kingdom Associate members:  Cyprus  India  Lithuania  Pakistan  Serbia  Slovenia  Turkey  UkraineOfficial languagesEnglish and FrenchCouncil PresidentSijbrand de Jong[2]Director GeneralFabiola Gianotti<
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European Union
The European Union
European Union
(EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states
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