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R3000
The R3000
R3000
is a full 32 bit RISC
RISC
microprocessor chipset developed by MIPS Computer Systems
MIPS Computer Systems
that implemented the MIPS I instruction set architecture (ISA). Introduced in June 1988, it was the second MIPS implementation, succeeding the R2000 as the flagship MIPS microprocessor. It operated at 20, 25 and 33.33 MHz. The MIPS 1 instruction set is very small compared to the instruction sets of other microprocessors, such as the contemporary 80x86
80x86
and 680x0
680x0
architectures, as it includes only most commonly used instructions and supports very limited number of addressing modes. The small number of CPU instructions, as well as other instruction set features—fixed instruction length and only three different types of instruction formats—greatly simplify instruction decoding and processing
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RISC
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk', /ɹɪsk/), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).[1] Various suggestions have been made regarding a precise definition of RISC, but the general concept is that such a computer has a small set of simple and general instructions, rather than a large set of complex and specialized instructions. Another common RISC trait is their load/store architecture,[2] in which memory is accessed through specific instructions rather than as a part of most instructions. Although a number of computers from the 1960s and '70s have been identified as forerunners of RISCs, the modern concept dates to the 1980s
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Translation Lookaside Buffer
A translation lookaside buffer (TLB) is a memory cache that is used to reduce the time taken to access a user memory location.[1][2] It is a part of the chip’s memory-management unit (MMU). The TLB stores the recent translations of virtual memory to physical memory and can be called an address-translation cache. A TLB may reside between the CPU and the CPU cache, between CPU cache
CPU cache
and the main memory or between the different levels of the multi-level cache. The majority of desktop, laptop, and server processors include one or more TLBs in the memory-management hardware, and it is nearly always present in any processor that utilizes paged or segmented virtual memory. The TLB is sometimes implemented as content-addressable memory (CAM). The CAM search key is the virtual address, and the search result is a physical address
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Prime Computer
Prime Computer, Inc. was a Natick, Massachusetts-based producer of minicomputers[1] from 1972 until 1992
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Seiko Epson
Seiko
Seiko
Epson Corporation (セイコーエプソン株式会社, Seikō Epuson Kabushiki-gaisha) (Epson being an abbreviation for "Son of Electronic Printer"[2]), or simply Epson, is a Japanese electronics company and one of the world's largest manufacturers of computer printers, and information and imaging related equipment. Headquartered in Suwa, Nagano, Japan,[3] the company has numerous subsidiaries worldwide and manufactures inkjet, dot matrix and laser printers, scanners, desktop computers, business, multimedia and home theatre projectors, large home theatre televisions, robots and industrial automation equipment, point of sale docket printers and cash registers, laptops, integrated circuits, LCD
LCD
components and other associated electronic components
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Silicon Graphics
Silicon Graphics, Inc. (later rebranded SGI, historically known as Silicon Graphics
Silicon Graphics
Computer Systems or SGCS) was an American high-performance computing manufacturer, producing computer hardware and software. Founded in Mountain View, California
Mountain View, California
in November 1981 by Jim Clark, its initial market was 3D graphics
3D graphics
computer workstations, but its products, strategies and market positions developed significantly over time. Early systems were based on the Geometry Engine that Clark and Marc Hannah had developed at Stanford University, and were derived from Clark's broader background in computer graphics. The Geometry Engine was the first very-large-scale integration (VLSI) implementation of a geometry pipeline, specialized hardware that accelerated the "inner-loop" geometric computations needed to display three-dimensional images
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Sony
Sony
Sony
Corporation (ソニー株式会社, Sonī Kabushiki Kaisha, /ˈsoʊni/ SOH-nee, stylized as SONY) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.[9][1] Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, gaming, entertainment and financial services.[10] The company is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products for the consumer and professional markets.[11] Sony
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PlayStation 2
The PlayStation
PlayStation
2 (PS2) is a home video game console that was developed by Sony
Sony
Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to the PlayStation
PlayStation
and is the second installment in the PlayStation
PlayStation
lineup of consoles. It was released on March 4, 2000, in Japan; October 26, 2000, in North America; November 24, 2000, in Europe; and November 17, 2000, in Australia. It competed with Sega's Dreamcast, Microsoft's Xbox, and Nintendo's GameCube
GameCube
in the sixth generation of video game consoles. Announced in 1999, the PlayStation
PlayStation
2 was the first PlayStation
PlayStation
console to offer backwards compatibility for its predecessor's DualShock controller, as well as for its games
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LSI Logic
LSI Corporation
LSI Corporation
was an American company based in San Jose, California which designed semiconductors and software that accelerate storage and networking in data centers, mobile networks and client computing.[2][3][4] On May 6, 2014, LSI Corporation
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Embedded System
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.[1][2] It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today.[3] Ninety-eight percent of all microprocessors are manufactured as components of embedded systems.[4] Examples of properties of typical embedded computers when compared with general-purpose counterparts are low power consumption, small size, rugged operating ranges, and low per-unit cost. This comes at the price of limited processing resources, which make them significantly more difficult to program and to interact with
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Thousandth Of An Inch
A thousandth of an inch is a derived unit of length in an inch-based system of units. Equal to ​1⁄1000 of an inch, it is normally referred to as a thou /ˈθaʊ/, a thousandth, or (particularly in the United States) a mil. The plural of thou is also thou (thus one hundredth of an inch is "10 thou"), while the plural of mil is mils (thus "10 mils"). The words are shortened forms of the English and Latin words for "thousand" (mille). The US Customary mil can be confused with the millimetre, which is the standard meaning for "mil" or "mils" (plural) in British English and European engineering circles.[citation needed] This can cause problems with spoken dimensions or with those who are not familiar with alternative uses of the term
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MIPS RISC/os
RISC/os is a discontinued UNIX operating system developed by MIPS Computer Systems, Inc. from 1985 to 1992, for their computer workstations and servers, such as the MIPS M/120 server or MIPS Magnum workstation. It was also known as UMIPS or MIPS OS.[1] RISC/os was based largely on UNIX System V with additions from 4.3BSD UNIX, ported to the MIPS architecture. It was a "dual-universe" operating system, meaning that it had separate, switchable runtime environments providing compatibility with either System V Release 3 or 4.3BSD.[1] MIPS OS was one of the first 32-bit operating systems for RISC-based workstation-class computers. It was also one of the first 64-bit Unix releases for RISC based microprocessors, with the first 64-bit versions appearing in 1990. MIPS OS supported full 32-bit and 64-bit applications simultaneously using the underlying hardware architecture supporting the MIPS-IV instruction set
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Fabless
Fabless manufacturing is the design and sale of hardware devices and semiconductor chips while outsourcing the fabrication (or "fab") of the devices to a specialized manufacturer called a semiconductor foundry. Foundries are typically, but not exclusively, located in China and Taiwan[1][2][3][4] because of the generally low cost of labor. Thus, fabless companies can benefit from lower capital costs while concentrating their research and development resources on the end market. The credit for pioneering the fabless concept is given to Bernie Vonderschmitt of Xilinx
Xilinx
and Gordon A. Campbell of Chips and Technologies. The first fabless semiconductor company, the Western Design Center, was founded in 1978
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Integrated Device Technology
Integrated Device Technology, Inc. is a publicly traded American corporation headquartered in San Jose, California, that designs, manufactures, and markets low-power, high-performance mixed-signal semiconductor solutions for the advanced communications, computing, and consumer industries. The company markets its products primarily to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Founded in 1980, the company began as a provider of complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS) for the communications business segment and computing business segments
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NEC Corporation
NEC
NEC
Corporation (日本電気株式会社, Nippon
Nippon
Denki Kabushiki Gaisha) is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.[2] It provides IT and network solutions to business enterprises, communications services providers and to government agencies, and has also been the biggest PC vendor in Japan
Japan
since the 1980s. The company was known as the Nippon
Nippon
Electric Company, Limited, before rebranding in 1983 as just NEC. Its NEC
NEC
Semiconductors business unit was one of the worldwide top 20 semiconductor sales leaders before merging with Renesas Electronics
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Complementary Metal–oxide–semiconductor
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS /ˈsiːmɒs/, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits. CMOS
CMOS
technology is used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS
CMOS
technology is also used for several analog circuits such as image sensors ( CMOS
CMOS
sensor), data converters, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication
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