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R136a1
RMC 136a1 (usually abbreviated to R136a1) is a Wolf–Rayet star located at the center of R136, the central condensation of stars of the large NGC 2070
NGC 2070
open cluster in the Tarantula Nebula. It lies at a distance of about 50 kiloparsecs (163,000 light-years) in a neighbouring galaxy known as the Large Magellanic Cloud
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Near Infrared
Infrared
Infrared
radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions [1][2][3][4]). It is sometimes called infrared light. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz), to 1 millimeter (300 GHz)[5] Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared
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Radcliffe Observatory
Radcliffe Observatory was the astronomical observatory of the University of Oxford from 1773 until 1934, when the Radcliffe Trustees sold it and built a new observatory in Pretoria, South Africa.[1][2] It is a Grade I listed building.[3] Today, the observatory forms a part of the Green Templeton College of the University of Oxford.Contents1 History 2 Radcliffe Observers 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit]Statue of Atlas on top of the observatoryThe observatory was founded and named after John Radcliffe by the Radcliffe Trustees.[4] It was built on the suggestion of the astronomer Thomas Hornsby, who was occupying the Savilian Chair of Astronomy, following his observation of the notable transit of Venus across the sun's disc in 1769 from a room in the nearby Radcliffe Infirmary. The observatory building commenced to designs by Henry Keene in 1772, and was completed in 1794 to the designs of James Wyatt, wit
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Solar Radius
Solar radius is a unit of distance used to express the size of stars in astronomy. The solar radius is usually defined as the radius to the layer in the Sun's photosphere where the optical depth equals 2/3: 1 R ⊙ = 6.957 × 10 5  km displaystyle 1,R_ odot =6.957times 10^ 5 hbox km The solar radius is approximately 695,700 kilometres (432,300 miles), which is about 10 times the average radius of Jupiter, 110 times the radius of the Earth, and 1/215th of an astronomical unit, the distance of the Earth
Earth
from the Sun. It varies slightly from pole to equator due to its rotation, which induces an oblateness in the order of 10 parts per million
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Solar Luminosity
The solar luminosity, L☉, is a unit of radiant flux (power emitted in the form of photons) conventionally used by astronomers to measure the luminosity of stars. It is defined in terms of the Sun's output. One solar luminosity is 7026382800000000000♠3.828×1026 W.[2] This does not include the solar neutrino luminosity, which would add 0.023 L☉.[3] The Sun
Sun
is a weakly variable star, and its luminosity therefore fluctuates.[4] The major fluctuation is the eleven-year solar cycle (sunspot cycle) that causes a periodic variation of about ±0.1%
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Surface Gravity
The surface gravity, g, of an astronomical or other object is the gravitational acceleration experienced at its surface. The surface gravity may be thought of as the acceleration due to gravity experienced by a hypothetical test particle which is very close to the object's surface and which, in order not to disturb the system, has negligible mass. Surface gravity is measured in units of acceleration, which, in the SI system, are meters per second squared
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Centimetre–gram–second System Of Units
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time. All CGS mechanical units are unambiguously derived from these three base units, but there are several different ways of extending the CGS system to cover electromagnetism.[1][2] The CGS system has been largely supplanted by the MKS system based on the metre, kilogram, and second, which was in turn extended and replaced by the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI)
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Effective Temperature
The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black body that would emit the same total amount of electromagnetic radiation.[1] Effective temperature
Effective temperature
is often used as an estimate of a body's surface temperature when the body's emissivity curve (as a function of wavelength) is not known. When the star's or planet's net emissivity in the relevant wavelength band is less than unity (less than that of a black body), the actual temperature of the body will be higher than the effective temperature. The net emissivity may be low due to surface or a
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Kelvin
The Kelvin
Kelvin
scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin (symbol: K) is the base unit of temperature in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI). The kelvin is defined as the fraction ​1⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F).[1] In other words, it is defined such that the triple point of water is exactly 273.16 K. The Kelvin
Kelvin
scale is named after the Belfast-born, Glasgow University engineer and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), who wrote of the need for an "absolute thermometric scale". Unlike the degree Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit
and degree Celsius, the kelvin is not referred to or typeset as a degree
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Megayear
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Star Catalogue
A star catalogue (Commonwealth English) or star catalog (American English), is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars. In astronomy, many stars are referred to simply by catalogue numbers. There are a great many different star catalogues which have been produced for different purposes over the years, and this article covers only some of the more frequently quoted ones. Star
Star
catalogues were compiled by many different ancient peoples, including the Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese, Persians, and Arabs
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SIMBAD
SIMBAD
SIMBAD
(the Set of Identifications, Measurements, and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) is an astronomical database of objects beyond the Solar System. It is maintained by the Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS), France. SIMBAD
SIMBAD
was created by merging the Catalog of Stellar Identifications (CSI) and the Bibliographic Star Index as they existed at the Meudon Computer Centre until 1979, and then expanded by additional source data from other catalogues and the academic literature. The first on-line interactive version, known as Version 2, was made available in 1981. Version 3, developed in the C language and running on UNIX stations at the Strasbourg Observatory, was released in 1990
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Absolute Magnitude
Absolute magnitude
Absolute magnitude
is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale. An object's absolute magnitude is defined to be equal to the apparent magnitude that the object would have if it were viewed from a distance of exactly 10 parsecs (32.6 light years), with no extinction (or dimming) of its light due to absorption by interstellar dust particles. By hypothetically placing all objects at a standard reference distance from the observer, their luminosities can be directly compared on a magnitude scale. As with all astronomical magnitudes, the absolute magnitude can be specified for different wavelength ranges corresponding to specified filter bands or passbands; for stars a commonly quoted absolute magnitude is the absolute visual magnitude, which uses the visual (V) band of the spectrum (in the UBV photometric system)
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Open Cluster
An open cluster is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud and have roughly the same age. More than 1,100 open clusters have been discovered within the Milky Way
Milky Way
Galaxy, and many more are thought to exist.[2] They are loosely bound by mutual gravitational attraction and become disrupted by close encounters with other clusters and clouds of gas as they orbit the galactic center. This can result in a migration to the main body of the galaxy and a loss of cluster members through internal close encounters.[3] Open clusters generally survive for a few hundred million years, with the most massive ones surviving for a few billion years. In contrast, the more massive globular clusters of stars exert a stronger gravitational attraction on their members, and can survive for longer
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Tarantula Nebula
The Tarantula Nebula
Tarantula Nebula
(also known as 30 Doradus) is an H II region
H II region
in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Large Magellanic Cloud
(LMC).Contents1 Discovery 2 Properties 3 NGC 2070 4 Supernova 1987A 5 Image gallery 6 References 7 External linksDiscovery[edit]Play mediaThe brilliant stars in the Tarantula Nebula
Tarantula Nebula
are unleashing a torrent of ultraviolet light and stellar winds that are etching away at the hydrogen gas cloud in which the stars were born.The Tarantula Nebula
Tarantula Nebula
was observed by Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille
Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille
during an expedition to the Cape of Good Hope between 1751 and 1753. He catalogued it as the second of the "Nebulae of the First Class", "Nebulosities not accompanied by any star visible in the telescope of two feet"
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Large Magellanic Cloud
The Large Magellanic Cloud
Large Magellanic Cloud
(LMC) is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way.[5] At a distance of 50 kiloparsecs (≈163,000 light-years),[2][6][7][8] the LMC is the third-closest galaxy to the Milky Way, after the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal (~ 16 kpc) and the putative Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy
Galaxy
(~ 12.9 kpc, though its status as a galaxy is under dispute), lying close to the Galactic Center. The LMC has a diameter of about 14,000 light-years (4.3 kpc) based on readily visible stars and a mass of approximately 10 billion solar masses, making it roughly 1/100 as massive as the Milky Way.[3] Based on this, the LMC is the fourth-largest galaxy in the Local Group, after the Andromeda Galaxy
Galaxy
(M31), the Milky Way, and the Triangulum Galaxy
Galaxy
(M33)
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