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R100
HIS MAJESTY\'S AIRSHIP R100, known simply as R100, was a privately designed and built rigid British airship made as part of a two-ship competition to develop a commercial airship service for use on British Empire routes as part of the Imperial Airship Scheme . The other airship, the R101 , was built by the British Air Ministry , but both airships were funded by the Government. R100 was built by the Airship Guarantee Company, a specially-created subsidiary of the armaments firm, Vickers-Armstrongs , led by Commander Dennis Burney , with the design team headed by Barnes Wallis , later famous for his invention of the bouncing bomb . The design team also included Nevil Shute Norway as the senior stress engineer . R100 first flew in December 1929
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Elevator (aircraft)
ELEVATORS are flight control surfaces , usually at the rear of an aircraft , which control the aircraft's pitch , and therefore the angle of attack and the lift of the wing. The elevators are usually hinged to the tailplane or horizontal stabilizer . They may be the only pitch control surface present, sometimes located at front (early airplanes) or integrated into a rear "all-moving tailplane" also called a slab elevator or stabilator . CONTENTS * 1 Elevators\' effect * 2 Elevators\' location * 3 Research * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ELEVATORS\' EFFECTThe horizontal stabilizer usually creates a downward force which balances the nose down moment created by the wing lift force, which typically applies at a point (the wing center of lift) situated aft of the airplane's center of gravity . The effects of drag and engine thrust may also result in pitch moments that need to be compensated with the horizontal stabilizer
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Balanced Rudder
Balanced rudders are used by both ships and aircraft. Both may indicate a portion of the rudder surface ahead of the hinge, placed to lower the control loads needed to turn the rudder. For aircraft the method can also be applied to elevators and ailerons ; all three aircraft control surfaces may also be MASS BALANCED, chiefly to avoid aerodynamic flutter . CONTENTS * 1 Ships * 2 Aircraft * 2.1 Aerodynamic balancing * 2.2 Mass balancing * 3 References * 3.1 Notes * 3.2 Bibliography SHIPSA BALANCED RUDDER is a rudder in which the axis of rotation of the rudder is behind its front edge. This means that when the rudder is turned, the pressure of water caused by the ship's movement through the water acts upon the forward part to exert a force which increases the angle of deflection, so counteracting the pressure acting on the after part, which acts to reduce the angle of deflection. A degree of semi-balance is normal to avoid rudder instability i.e
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Linen
LINEN /ˈlɪnᵻn/ is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen
Linen
is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very absorbent and garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot weather. Many products are made of linen: aprons, bags, towels (swimming, bath, beach, body and wash towels), napkins, bed linens, tablecloths, runners, chair covers, and men's and women's wear. The word linen is of West Germanic origin and cognate to the Latin name for the flax plant, linum, and the earlier Greek λινόν (linón). This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line , from the use of a linen (flax) thread to determine a straight line
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Aircraft Dope
AIRCRAFT DOPE is a plasticised lacquer that is applied to fabric-covered aircraft . It tightens and stiffens fabric stretched over airframes, which renders them airtight and weatherproof. Typical doping agents include nitrocellulose , cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate. Liquid dopes are highly flammable; nitrocellulose, for instance, is also known as the explosive propellant "guncotton". Dopes often include colouring pigments to facilitate even application, and are available in a wide range of colors. Dope has been applied to various aircraft fabrics, including madapolam , but also more recently on polyester and other fabrics with similar fine weave and absorbent qualities. ACCIDENTSAccidents have occurred when dope is not used correctly, for example when mixed with other chemicals, used on the wrong fabrics, or applied to contaminated or improperly prepared surfaces
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LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin
Deutsche Zeppelin-Reederei LZ 127 GRAF ZEPPELIN (Deutsches Luftschiff Zeppelin #127; Registration: D-LZ 127) was a German -built and -operated, passenger-carrying, hydrogen -filled, rigid airship which operated commercially from 1928 to 1937. When it entered commercial service in 1928, it became the first commercial passenger transatlantic flight service in the world. It was named after the German pioneer of airships, Ferdinand von Zeppelin , who was a count ( Graf
Graf
) in the German nobility. During its operating life, the airship made 590 flights covering more than 1.7 million kilometers (over 1 million miles). It was designed to be operated by a crew of 36 officers and men. The LZ 127 was the longest rigid airship at the time of its completion and was only surpassed by the USS Akron in 1931. It was scrapped for fighter plane parts in 1940
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Duralumin
DURALUMIN (also called DURALUMINUM, DURALUMINIUM, DURALUM, DURALIUM or DURAL) is the trade name of one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys . Its use as a trade name is obsolete, and today the term is mainly used to describe aluminium–copper alloys, designated as the 2000 series by the International Alloy Designation System (IADS), as with 2014 and 2024 alloys used in airframe fabrication. CONTENTS * 1 Alloying elements * 2 History * 3 Aviation applications * 4 Corrosion
Corrosion
protection * 5 Applications * 6 Popular culture * 7 References ALLOYING ELEMENTSIn addition to aluminium , the main materials constituting duralumin are copper , manganese and magnesium . Duralumin
Duralumin
is 95% aluminium, 4% copper, 0.5% magnesium, and 0.5% manganese. HISTORY Duralumin
Duralumin
was developed by the German metallurgist Alfred Wilm at Dürener Metallwerke AG
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Montreal
MONTREAL (/ˌmʌntriˈɒl/ ( listen ); French: ( listen ); officially MONTRéAL) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec
Quebec
and the second-most populous municipality in Canada
Canada
as a whole. Originally called Ville-Marie , or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal , the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal , which took its name from the same source as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard . It has a distinct four-season continental climate with warm to hot summers and cold, snowy winters. In 2016 the city had a population of 1,704,694. Montreal's metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927 and a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration , with all of the municipalities on the Island of Montreal included
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RNAS
The ROYAL NAVAL AIR SERVICE (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy , under the direction of the Admiralty's Air Department
Air Department
, and existed formally from 1 July 1914 to 1 April 1918, when it was merged with the British Army
British Army
's Royal Flying Corps
Royal Flying Corps
to form a new service, the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
, the first of its kind in the world. During its first year it continued to be the Naval Wing of the joint Royal Flying Corps
Royal Flying Corps
(which had been set up in 1912), but was administered by the Admiralty's new Air Department, but on 1 August 1915 the RFC became the flying branch of the British Army
British Army
while the RNAS became "an integral part of the Royal Navy"
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Kingston Upon Hull
KINGSTON UPON HULL (/ˌkɪŋstən əpɒn ˈhʌl/ ( listen ) KING-stən ə-pon HUL , locally /-ˈhʊl/ -HUUL ), usually abbreviated to HULL, is a city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, England
England
. It lies upon the River Hull at its confluence with the Humber
Humber
estuary , 25 miles (40 km) inland from the North Sea
North Sea
, with a population of 260,200 (mid-2016 est.). The town of Hull was founded late in the 12th century. The monks of Meaux Abbey
Meaux Abbey
needed a port where the wool from their estates could be exported. They chose a place at the confluence of the rivers Hull and Humber
Humber
to build a quay. The exact year the town was founded is not known but it was first mentioned in 1193
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Kerosene
KEROSENE, also known as PARAFFIN, LAMP OIL, and COAL OIL (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum , widely used as a fuel in industry as well as households. Its name derives from Greek : κηρός (keros) meaning wax , and was registered as a trademark by Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark . It is sometimes spelled KEROSINE in scientific and industrial usage. The term KEROSENE is common in much of Argentina
Argentina
, Australia
Australia
, Canada
Canada
, India
India
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, and the United States
United States
, while the term PARAFFIN is used in Chile
Chile
, eastern Africa
Africa
, South Africa
Africa
, and in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom

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Flash Point
The FLASH POINT of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source. The flash point may sometimes be confused with the autoignition temperature , which is the temperature at which the vapor ignites spontaneously without an ignition source. The fire point is the lowest temperature at which vapors of the material will keep burning after being ignited and the ignition source removed. The fire point is higher than the FLASH POINT, because at the flash point more vapor may not be produced rapidly enough to sustain combustion. Neither flash point nor fire point depends directly on the ignition source temperature, but it may be understood that ignition source temperature will be considerably higher than either the flash or fire point
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Toronto
TORONTO (/təˈrɒntoʊ/ ( listen ) tə-RON-toh , locally (help ·info )) is the capital of the Canadian province of Ontario
Ontario
. It is located within the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario
Ontario
on the northern shore of Lake Ontario
Ontario
. With 2,731,571 residents in 2016, it is the largest city in Canada
Canada
and fourth-largest city in North America by population. Also in 2016, the Toronto
Toronto
census metropolitan area (CMA), the majority of which is within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), had a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada’s most populous CMA . A global city , Toronto
Toronto
is a centre of business, finance, arts, and culture, and is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world
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Great Circle Route
A GREAT CIRCLE, also known as an ORTHODROME, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane that passes through the center point of the sphere. A great circle is the largest circle that can be drawn on any given sphere. Any diameter of any great circle coincides with a diameter of the sphere, and therefore all great circles have the same center and circumference as each other. This special case of a circle of a sphere is in opposition to a small circle, that is, the intersection of the sphere and a plane that does not pass through the center. Every circle in Euclidean 3-space is a great circle of exactly one sphere. For most pairs of points on the surface of a sphere, there is a unique great circle through the two points. The exception is a pair of antipodal points, for which there are infinitely many great circles. The minor arc of a great circle between two points is the shortest surface-path between them
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Ground Speed
GROUND SPEED is the horizontal speed of an aircraft relative to the ground. An aircraft heading vertically would have a ground speed of zero. Information displayed to passengers through the entertainment system often gives the aircraft ground speed rather than airspeed . Ground speed can be determined by the vector sum of the aircraft's true airspeed and the current wind speed and direction; a headwind subtracts from the ground speed, while a tailwind adds to it. Winds at other angles to the heading will have components of either headwind or tailwind as well as a crosswind component. An airspeed indicator indicates the aircraft's speed relative to the air mass. The air mass may be moving over the ground due to wind, and therefore some additional means to provide position over the ground is required. This might be through navigation using landmarks, radio aided position location, inertial navigation system , or GPS
GPS

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Standing Waves
In physics , a STANDING WAVE – also known as a STATIONARY WAVE – is a wave in a medium in which each point on the axis of the wave has an associated constant amplitude . The locations at which the amplitude is minimum are called nodes , and the locations where the amplitude is maximum are called antinodes . Standing waves were first noticed by Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
in 1831. Faraday observed standing waves on the surface of a liquid in a vibrating container. Franz Melde
Franz Melde
coined the term "standing wave" (German: stehende Welle or Stehwelle) around 1860 and demonstrated the phenomenon in his classic experiment with vibrating strings. This phenomenon can occur because the medium is moving in the opposite direction to the wave, or it can arise in a stationary medium as a result of interference between two waves traveling in opposite directions
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