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R100
His Majesty's Airship
Airship
R100, known simply as R100, was a privately designed and built British rigid airship made as part of a two-ship competition to develop a commercial airship service for use on British Empire routes as part of the Imperial Airship
Airship
Scheme. The other airship, the R101, was built by the British Air Ministry, but both airships were funded by the Government. R100
R100
was built by the Airship
Airship
Guarantee Company, a specially created subsidiary of the armaments firm Vickers-Armstrongs, led by Commander Dennis Burney.The design team was headed by Barnes Wallis, later famous for his invention of the bouncing bomb. The design team also included Nevil Shute
Nevil Shute
Norway as the senior stress engineer.[Note 1] R100
R100
first flew in December 1929
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Ground Speed
Ground speed is the horizontal speed of an aircraft relative to the ground. An aircraft heading vertically would have a ground speed of zero. Information displayed to passengers through the entertainment system often gives the aircraft ground speed rather than airspeed. Ground speed can be determined by the vector sum of the aircraft's true airspeed and the current wind speed and direction; a headwind subtracts from the ground speed, while a tailwind adds to it. Winds at other angles to the heading will have components of either headwind or tailwind as well as a crosswind component. An airspeed indicator indicates the aircraft's speed relative to the air mass. The air mass may be moving over the ground due to wind, and therefore some additional means to provide position over the ground is required. This might be through navigation using landmarks, radio aided position location, inertial navigation system, or GPS
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Aircraft Dope
Aircraft
Aircraft
dope is a plasticised lacquer that is applied to fabric-covered aircraft (both full-size and flying models[1]). It tightens and stiffens fabric stretched over airframes, which renders them airtight and weatherproof.[2] Typical doping agents include nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate. Liquid dopes are highly flammable; nitrocellulose, for instance, is also known as the explosive propellant "guncotton"
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RNAs
The Royal Naval Air Service
Royal Naval Air Service
(RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy, under the direction of the Admiralty's Air Department, and existed formally from 1 July 1914[1] to 1 April 1918, when it was merged with the British Army's Royal Flying Corps
Royal Flying

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Kingston Upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.[2] It lies upon the River Hull
River Hull
at its confluence with the Humber
Humber
Estuary, 25 miles (40 km) inland from the North Sea,[2] with a population of 260,200 (mid-2016 est.). The town of Hull was founded late in the 12th century. The monks of Meaux Abbey
Meaux Abbey
needed a port where the wool from their estates could be exported
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Duralumin
Duralumin
Duralumin
(also called duraluminum, duraluminium, duralum, duralium or dural) is a trade name for one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. Its use as a trade name is obsolete, and today the term mainly refers to aluminium–copper alloys, designated as the 2000 series by the International Alloy Designation System (IADS), as with 2014 and 2024 alloys used in airframe fabrication.Contents1 Alloying elements 2 History 3 Aviation applications 4 Corrosion
Corrosion
protection 5 Applications 6 Popular culture 7 ReferencesAlloying elements[edit] In addition to aluminium, the main materials in duralumin are copper, manganese and magnesium. Duralumin
Duralumin
is 95% aluminium, 4% copper, 0.5% magnesium, and 0.5% manganese. History[edit] Duralumin
Duralumin
was developed by the German metallurgist Alfred Wilm at Dürener Metallwerke AG
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LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin
Deutsche Zeppelin-ReedereiLZ 127 Graf
Graf
Zeppelin (Deutsches Luftschiff Zeppelin #127; Registration: D-LZ 127) was a German-built and -operated, passenger-carrying, hydrogen-filled, rigid airship which operated commercially from 1928 to 1937. When it entered commercial service in 1928, it became the first commercial passenger transatlantic flight service in the world. It was named after the German pioneer of airships, Ferdinand von Zeppelin, who was a count (Graf) in the German nobility. During its operating life, the airship made 590 flights covering more than 1.7 million kilometers (over 1 million miles). It was designed to be operated by a crew of 36 officers and men. The LZ 127 was the longest rigid airship at the time of its completion and was only surpassed by the USS Akron
USS Akron
in 1931
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Elevator (aircraft)
Elevators are flight control surfaces, usually at the rear of an aircraft, which control the aircraft's pitch, and therefore the angle of attack and the lift of the wing. The elevators are usually hinged to the tailplane or horizontal stabilizer. They may be the only pitch control surface present, sometimes located at the front of the aircraft (early airplanes) or integrated into a rear "all-moving tailplane" also called a slab elevator or stabilator.Contents1 Elevator control effectiveness 2 Elevators' location 3 Research 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksElevator control effectiveness[edit] The horizontal stabilizer usually creates a downward force which balances the nose down moment created by the wing lift force, which typically applies at a point (the wing center of lift) situated aft of the airplane's center of gravity
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Balanced Rudder
Balanced rudders are used by both ships and aircraft. Both may indicate a portion of the rudder surface ahead of the hinge, placed to lower the control loads needed to turn the rudder. For aircraft the method can also be applied to elevators and ailerons; all three aircraft control surfaces may also be mass balanced, chiefly to avoid aerodynamic flutter.Contents1 Ships 2 Aircraft2.1 Aerodynamic balancing 2.2 Mass balancing3 References3.1 Notes 3.2 BibliographyShips[edit] A balanced rudder is a rudder in which the axis of rotation of the rudder is behind its front edge. This means that when the rudder is turned, the pressure of water caused by the ship's movement through the water acts upon the forward part to exert a force which increases the angle of deflection, so counteracting the pressure acting on the after part, which acts to reduce the angle of deflection. A degree of semi-balance is normal to avoid rudder instability i.e
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Linen
Linen
Linen
/ˈlɪnɪn/ is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen
Linen
is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very absorbent and garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot weather. Many products are made of linen: aprons, bags, towels (swimming, bath, beach, body and wash towels), napkins, bed linens, tablecloths, runners, chair covers, and men's and women's wear. The word linen is of West Germanic origin and cognate to the Latin name for the flax plant, linum, and the earlier Greek λινόν (linón). This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line, from the use of a linen (flax) thread to determine a straight line.[1] Textiles in a linen weave texture, even when made of cotton, hemp and other non-flax fibers, are also loosely referred to as "linen"
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Kerosene
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum, widely used as a fuel in industry as well as households. Its name derives from Greek: κηρός (keros) meaning wax, and was registered as a trademark by Canadian geologist and inventor Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark. It is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage.[1] The term kerosene is common in much of Argentina, Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, and the United States,[2][3] while the term paraffin (or a closely related variant) is used in Chile, eastern Africa, South Africa, and in the United Kingdom,[4] and (a variant of) the term petroleum in Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Latvian, Serbian, Slovak and Slovenian
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Jacques Cartier Bridge
The Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier
Bridge
Bridge
(French: pont Jacques-Cartier) is a steel truss cantilever bridge crossing the Saint Lawrence River
Saint Lawrence River
from Montreal
Montreal
Island, Montreal, Quebec
Quebec
to the south shore at Longueuil, Quebec, Canada. The bridge crosses Île Sainte-Hélène
Île Sainte-Hélène
in the centre of the river, where offramps allow access to the Parc Jean-Drapeau
Parc Jean-Drapeau
and La Ronde amusement park. Originally named the Montreal
Montreal
Harbour Bridge
Bridge
(pont du Havre), it was renamed in 1934[3] to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Jacques Cartier's first voyage up the St. Lawrence River. The five-lane highway bridge is 3,425.6 m (11,239 ft) in length, including the approach viaducts
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Flash Point
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source. The flash point may sometimes be confused with the autoignition temperature, which is the temperature at which the vapor ignites spontaneously without an ignition source. The fire point is the lowest temperature at which vapors of the material will keep burning after being ignited and the ignition source removed
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Tractor Configuration
An aircraft constructed with a tractor configuration has the engine mounted with the airscrew in front of it so that the aircraft is "pulled" through the air, as opposed to the pusher configuration, in which the airscrew is behind and propels the aircraft forward. Through common usage, the word "propeller" has come to mean any airscrew, whether it actually propels or pulls the plane. In the early years of powered aviation both tractor and pusher designs were common. However, by the midpoint of the First World War, interest in pushers declined and the tractor configuration dominated
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Pusher Configuration
In a craft with a pusher configuration (as opposed to a tractor configuration), the propeller(s) are mounted behind their respective engine(s). According to British aviation author Bill Gunston, a "pusher propeller" is one mounted behind the engine, so that the drive shaft is in compression.[1] Pusher configuration
Pusher configuration
describes this specific (propeller or ducted fan) thrust device attached to a craft, either aerostat (airship) or aerodyne (aircraft, WIG, paramotor, rotorcraft) or others types such as hovercraft, airboat and propeller-driven snowmobiles.[note 1] "Pusher configuration" also describes the layout of a fixed-wing aircraft in which the thrust device has a pusher configuration. This kind of aircraft is commonly called a pusher
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Cardington, Bedfordshire
Cardington is a village and civil parish in the Borough of Bedford
Borough of Bedford
in Bedfordshire, England. Part of the ancient hundred of Wixamtree, the settlement is best known in connection with the Cardington airship works founded by Short Brothers during World War I, which later became an RAF training station
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