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R-300 Elbrus
Scud
Scud
is the name of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during the Cold War. It was exported widely to both Second and Third World
Third World
countries. The term comes from the NATO reporting name attached to the missile by Western intelligence agencies. The Russian names for the missile are the R-11 (the first version), and the R-17 (later R-300) Elbrus (later developments)
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Scud (other)
Scud
Scud
refers to a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Scud
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V-2
maximum:5,760 km/h (3,580 mph) at impact: 2,880 km/h (1,790 mph)Guidance systemGyroscopes to determine direction Müller-type pendulous gyroscopic accelerometer for engine cutoff on most production rockets[2][3]:225Launch platformMobile (Meillerwagen)The V-2 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range[4] guided ballistic missile. The missile, powered by a liquid-propellant rocket engine, was developed during the Second World War
Second World War
in Germany as a "vengeance weapon", assigned to attack Allied cities as retaliation for the Allied bombings against German cities
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S. P. Korolev Rocket And Space Corporation Energia
PAO S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia
Energia
(Russian: Ракетно-космическая корпорация «Энергия» им. С. П. Королёва, translit. Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya “Energiya” im. S. P. Koroleva), also known as RSC Energia
Energia
(РКК «Энергия», RKK “Energiya”), is a Russian manufacturer of ballistic missile, spacecraft and space station components
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Aleksei Mihailovich Isaev
Aleksei Mikhailovich Isaev (October 24, 1908, Saint Petersburg–June 10, 1971, Moscow) was a Russian rocket engineer. Aleksei Isaev began work under Leonid Dushkin during World War II, on an experimental rocket-powered interceptor plane, the BI-1. In 1944 he formed his own design bureau to engineer liquid-propellant engines. After abandoning the heavy, complex and undercooled German engine designs, Russia's principal engine designer Valentin Glushko
Valentin Glushko
turned to Isaev's innovations: thin-walled copper combustion chambers backed by steel support, anti-oscillation baffle to prevent chugging, and the flat injector plate with mixing-swirling injectors
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Thermonuclear Weapon
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction. Some advanced designs use fast neutrons produced by this second stage to ignite a third fast fission or fusion stage. The fission bomb and fusion fuel are placed near each other in a special radiation-reflecting container called a radiation case that is designed to contain x-rays for as long as possible. The result is greatly increased explosive power when compared to single-stage fission weapons
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Chemical Weapon
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans. According to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
(OPCW), "the term chemical weapon may also be applied to any toxic chemical or its precursor that can cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation or sensory irritation through its chemical action. Munitions or other delivery devices designed to deliver chemical weapons, whether filled or unfilled, are also considered weapons themselves."[2] Chemical weapons are classified as weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), though they are distinct from nuclear weapons, biological weapons, and radiological weapons
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VX (nerve Agent)
VX is an extremely toxic synthetic chemical compound in the organophosphorus class, specifically, a thiophosphonate. In the class of nerve agents, it was developed for military use in chemical warfare after translation of earlier discoveries of organophosphate toxicity in pesticide research. In its pure form, VX is an oily, relatively non-volatile liquid with an amber-like color.[4] Because of its low volatility, VX persists in environments where it is dispersed.[5] VX, short for "venomous agent X",[6] is the best known of Tammelin's esters, named for the member of the Swedish National Defence Research Institute who first studied them. Now one of a broader V-series of agents, they are classified as nerve agents and have been used as a chemical weapon in various recorded deadly attacks. VX fatalities occur with exposure to tens of milligram quantities via inhalation or absorption through skin; VX is thus more potent than sarin, another nerve agent with a similar mechanism of action
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Liquid-fuel Rocket
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants. Liquids are desirable because their reasonably high density allows the volume of the propellant tanks to be relatively low, and it is possible to use lightweight centrifugal turbopumps to pump the propellant from the tanks into the combustion chamber, which means that the propellants can be kept under low pressure. This permits the use of low-mass propellant tanks, resulting in a high mass ratio for the rocket. An inert gas stored in a tank at a high pressure is sometimes used instead of pumps in simpler small engines to force the propellants into the combustion chamber. These engines may have a lower mass ratio, but are usually more reliable, and are therefore used widely in satellites for orbit maintenance
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Kerosene
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum, widely used as a fuel in industry as well as households. Its name derives from Greek: κηρός (keros) meaning wax, and was registered as a trademark by Canadian geologist and inventor Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark. It is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage.[1] The term kerosene is common in much of Argentina, Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, and the United States,[2][3] while the term paraffin (or a closely related variant) is used in Chile, eastern Africa, South Africa, and in the United Kingdom,[4] and (a variant of) the term petroleum in Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Latvian, Serbian, Slovak and Slovenian
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Red Fuming Nitric Acid
Red fuming nitric acid (RFNA) is a storable oxidizer used as a rocket propellant. It consists of 84% nitric acid (HNO3), 13% dinitrogen tetroxide and 1–2% water.[1] The color of red fuming nitric acid is due to the dinitrogen tetroxide, which breaks down partially to form nitrogen dioxide. The nitrogen dioxide dissolves until the liquid is saturated, and evaporates off into fumes with a suffocating odor. RFNA increases the flammability of combustible materials and is highly exothermic when reacting with water. It is usually used with an inhibitor (with various, sometimes secret, substances, including hydrogen fluoride;[2] any such combination is called "inhibited RFNA" IRFNA) because nitric acid attacks most container materials. It can also be a component of a monopropellant; with substances like amine nitrates dissolved in it, it can be used as the sole fuel in a rocket
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Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine
Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine
Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine
(UDMH; 1,1-dimethylhydrazine) is a chemical compound with the formula H2NN(CH3)2. It is a colorless liquid, with a sharp, fishy, ammoniacal smell typical for organic amines. Samples turn yellowish on exposure to air and absorb oxygen and carbon dioxide. It mixes completely with water, ethanol, and kerosene. In concentration between 2.5% and 95% in air, its vapors are flammable. It is not sensitive to shock
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Mach Number
In fluid dynamics, the Mach number
Mach number
(M or Ma) (/mɑːx/; German: [maχ]) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.[1][2] M = u c , displaystyle mathrm M = frac u c , where:M is the Mach number, u is the local flow velocity with respect to the boundaries (either internal, such as an object immersed in the flow, or external, like a channel), and c is the speed of sound in the medium.By definition, at Mach 1 the local flow velocity u is equal to the speed of sound
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Viktor Makeev
Viktor Petrovich Makeyev (Russian: Ви́ктор Петро́вич Маке́ев; October 25, 1924 – October 25, 1985) was the founder of the Soviet-Russian school of sea missiles production.Contents1 Work 2 Awards 3 Literature 4 External links4.1 In English 4.2 In RussianWork[edit] Makeyev's work has resulted in three generations of submarine-launched ballistic missiles being used by the Russian Navy. Among these were:First generation R-11FM
R-11FM
- the first Soviet SLBM. R-13 - R-17 - known by
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R-1 (missile)
The R-1 rocket ( NATO reporting name SS-1 Scunner, Soviet code name SA11, GRAU
GRAU
index 8A11) was a short-range ballistic missile manufactured in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
based[2] on the German V-2 rocket. Even though it was a copy, it was manufactured using Soviet industrial plants and gave the Soviets valuable experience which later enabled the USSR
USSR
to construct its own much more capable rockets.SS-1a ScunnerIn 1945 the Soviets captured several key V-2 rocket
V-2 rocket
production facilities, and also gained the services, at gun point, of some German scientists and engineers related to the project
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OKB-1
PAO S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia
Energia
(Russian: Ракетно-космическая корпорация «Энергия» им. С. П. Королёва, translit. Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya “Energiya” im. S. P. Koroleva), also known as RSC Energia
Energia
(РКК «Энергия», RKK “Energiya”), is a Russian manufacturer of ballistic missile, spacecraft and space station components
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.