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Réaumur Scale
The Réaumur scale
Réaumur scale
French: [ʁe.o.myːʁ] (°Ré, °Re, °r), also known as the "octogesimal division",[1] is a temperature scale for which the freezing and boiling points of water are defined as 0 and 80 degrees respectively. The scale is named for René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, who first proposed a similar scale in 1730.[2] Change in scale[edit] Réaumur’s thermometer contained diluted alcohol (ethanol) and was constructed on the principle of using 0° for the freezing temperature of water, and graduating the tube into degrees, each of which was one-thousandth of the volume contained by the bulb and tube up to the zero mark. He suggested that the concentration of alcohol employed be such that it began boiling at 80 °Ré — that is, when it had expanded in volume by 8%
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Réaumur (other)
Réaumur can refer to:René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, a French scientist of the early 18th century Réaumur scale, proposed in 1731 by de Réaumur Réaumur, Vendée, a commune in the Vendée département of FranceThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Réaumur. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the inten
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Anna Karenina
Anna Karenina
Anna Karenina
(Russian: «Анна Каренина», IPA: [ˈanːə kɐˈrʲenʲɪnə])[1] is a novel by the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy, published in serial installments from 1873 to 1877 in the periodical The Russian Messenger. Tolstoy clashed with editor Mikhail Katkov
Mikhail Katkov
over political issues that arose in the final installment (Tolstoy's negative views of Russian volunteers going to fight in Serbia); therefore, the novel's first complete appearance was in book form in 1878. Widely regarded as a pinnacle in realist fiction, Tolstoy considered Anna Karenina
Anna Karenina
his first true novel, after he came to consider War and Peace to be more than a novel
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Newton Scale
The Newton scale is a temperature scale devised by Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
in 1701.[1] He called his device a "thermometer", but he did not use the term "temperature", speaking of "degrees of heat" (gradus caloris) instead. Newton's publication represents the first attempt to introduce an objective way of measuring (what would come to be called) temperature (alongside the Rømer scale published at nearly the same time). Newton likely developed his scale for practical use rather than for a theoretical interest in thermodynamics; he had been appointed Warden of the Mint
Warden of the Mint
in 1695, and Master of the Mint in 1699, and his interest in the boiling points of metals are likely inspired by his duties in connection with the Royal Mint. Newton used linseed oil as thermometric material and measured its change of volume against his reference points
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Delisle Scale
The Delisle scale (°D) is a temperature scale invented in 1732 by the French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle
Joseph-Nicolas Delisle
(1688–1768).[1] Delisle was the author of Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire et aux progrès de l'Astronomie, de la Géographie et de la Physique (1738).Contents1 History 2 Conversion table between the different temperature units 3 See also 4 Notes and references 5 External linksHistory[edit] In 1732, Delisle built a thermometer that used mercury as a working fluid. Delisle chose his scale using the temperature of boiling water as the fixed zero point and measured the contraction of the mercury (with lower temperatures) in hundred-thousandths.[1] Delisle thermometers usually had 2400 or 2700 gradations, appropriate to the winter in St. Petersburg,[2] as he had been invited by Peter the Great to St. Petersburg
St

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Réaumur Scale
The Réaumur scale
Réaumur scale
French: [ʁe.o.myːʁ] (°Ré, °Re, °r), also known as the "octogesimal division",[1] is a temperature scale for which the freezing and boiling points of water are defined as 0 and 80 degrees respectively. The scale is named for René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, who first proposed a similar scale in 1730.[2] Change in scale[edit] Réaumur’s thermometer contained diluted alcohol (ethanol) and was constructed on the principle of using 0° for the freezing temperature of water, and graduating the tube into degrees, each of which was one-thousandth of the volume contained by the bulb and tube up to the zero mark. He suggested that the concentration of alcohol employed be such that it began boiling at 80 °Ré — that is, when it had expanded in volume by 8%
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The Times
The Times
The Times
is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times
(founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp
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Crime And Punishment
Crime and Punishment
Crime and Punishment
(Russian: Преступлéние и наказáние, tr. Prestupleniye i nakazaniye, IPA: [prʲɪstʊˈplʲenʲɪje ɪ nəkɐˈzanʲɪje]) is a novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky. It was first published in the literary journal The Russian Messenger
The Russian Messenger
in twelve monthly installments during 1866.[1] Later, it was published in a single volume. It is the second of Dostoevsky's full-length novels following his return from 5 years of exile in Siberia. Crime and Punishment
Crime and Punishment
is considered the first great novel of his "mature" period of writing.[2] Crime and Punishment
Crime and Punishment
focuses on the mental anguish and moral dilemmas of Rodion Raskolnikov, an impoverished ex-student in Saint Petersburg who formulates a plan to kill an unscrupulous pawnbroker for her money
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Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
(PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".[2] It was founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart
Michael S. Hart
and is the oldest digital library.[3] Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books. The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on almost any computer. As of 23 March 2018[update], Project Gutenberg reached 56,750 items in its collection of free eBooks.[4] The releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, and Plucker. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are also available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional and language-specific works
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Scale Of Temperature
Scale of temperature is a way to measure temperature quantitatively. Empirical scales measure the quantity of heat in a system in relation to a fixed parameter, a thermometer. They are not absolute measures, that is why scales vary. Absolute temperature is thermodynamic temperature because it is directly related to thermodynamics. It is the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics that leads to a formal definition of thermodynamic temperature.Contents1 Formal description 2 Empirical scales2.1 Ideal gas scale 2.2 International temperature scale of 19903 Celsius
Celsius
scale 4 Thermodynamic scale4.1 Definition 4.2 Equality to ideal gas scale5 Conversion table between different temperature scales 6 See also 7 Notes and referencesFormal description[edit] According to the zeroth law of thermodynamics, being in thermal equilibrium is an equivalence relation
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Rankine Scale
The Rankine scale (/ˈræŋkɪn/) is an absolute scale of thermodynamic temperature named after the Glasgow University
Glasgow University
engineer and physicist William John Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859. (The Kelvin
Kelvin
scale was first proposed in 1848.)[1] It may be used in engineering systems where heat computations are done using degrees Fahrenheit. The symbol for degrees Rankine is °R[2] (or °Ra if necessary to distinguish it from the Rømer and Réaumur scales). By analogy with kelvin, some authors term the unit rankine, omitting the degree symbol.[3][4] Zero on both the Kelvin
Kelvin
and Rankine scales is absolute zero, but a temperature difference of one Rankine degree is defined as equal to one Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit
degree, rather than the Celsius
Celsius
degree used on the Kelvin
Kelvin
scale
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Gas Mark
The Gas Mark is a temperature scale used on gas ovens and cookers in Great Britain, Ireland
Ireland
and some Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
countries.Contents1 History 2 Equivalents in Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit
and Celsius 3 Other cooking temperature scales 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The draft 2003 edition of the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
lists the earliest known usage of the concept as being in L. Chatterton's book Modern Cookery published in 1943: "Afternoon tea scones… Time: 20 minutes. Temperature: Gas, Regulo Mark 7". "Regulo" was a type of gas regulator used by a manufacturer of cookers; however, the scale has now become universal, and the word Regulo is rarely used. The term "gas mark" was a subject of the joint BBC/OED production Balderdash & Piffle, in May 2005
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Leiden Scale
The Leiden
Leiden
scale (°L) was used to calibrate low-temperature indirect measurements in the early twentieth century, by providing conventional values (in kelvins, then termed "degrees Kelvin") of helium vapour pressure. It was used below -183°C, the starting point of the International Temperature scale in the 1930s (Awbery 1934). History[edit] The Leiden
Leiden
scale probably goes back to around 1894, when Heike Kamerlingh Onnes' cryogenic laboratory was established in Leiden, Netherlands. It has been reported[1] that the scale is the kelvin scale shifted so that the boiling points of hydrogen and oxygen become zero and 70 respectively, but this is unlikely to be true. Oxygen
Oxygen
under a standard atmosphere boils at a temperature in the 90.15 to 90.18 K range. For hydrogen, it depends on the molecular variety
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Planck Temperature
Planck temperature, denoted by TP, is the unit of temperature in the system of natural units known as Planck units. It serves as the defining unit of the Planck temperature scale. In this scale the magnitude of the Planck temperature is equal to 1, while that of absolute zero is 0. Other temperatures can be converted to Planck temperature units
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Wedgwood Scale
The Wedgwood scale
Wedgwood scale
(°W) is an obsolete temperature scale, which was used to measure temperatures above the boiling point of mercury of 356 °C (673 °F). The scale and associated measurement technique were proposed by the English potter Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood
in the 18th century. The measurement was based on the shrinking of clay when heated above red heat, and the shrinking was evaluated by comparing heated and unheated clay cylinders. The scale started at 1,077.5 °F (580.8 °C) being 0° Wedgwood and had 240 steps of 130 °F (54 °C). Both the origin and the step were later found inaccurate.Contents1 History 2 Method 3 Scale 4 Corrections 5 Notes and referencesHistory[edit] The boiling point of mercury limits the mercury-in-glass thermometer to temperatures below 356 °C, which is too low for many industrial applications such as pottery, glass making and metallurgy
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Conversion Of Units Of Temperature
This is a compendium of temperature conversion formulas and comparisons among eight different temperature scales, several of which have long been obsolete.Contents1 Celsius
Celsius
(centigrade) 2 Fahrenheit 3 Kelvin 4 Rankine 5 Delisle 6 Newton 7 Réaumur 8 Rømer 9 Comparison 10 Comparison of temperature scales10.1 Graphical representation11 Conversion table between different temperature units 12 See also 13 Notes and references 14 External links
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