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Questions And Replies Between Tang Taizong And Li Weigong
Questions and Replies between Emperor Taizong of Tang
Emperor Taizong of Tang
and Li Weigong (simplified Chinese: 唐太宗李卫公问对; traditional Chinese: 唐太宗李衛公問對; pinyin: Táng Tàizōng Lǐ Wèi Gōng Wèn Duì) is a dialogue between Emperor Taizong (599-649 AD) of the Tang Dynasty and Li Jing (571-649 AD), a prominent Tang general. It discusses matters of military strategy, and is considered to be one of the Seven Military Classics of China.[1]Contents1 Content 2 History and Authenticity2.1 Evidence of Forgery 2.2 Evidence of Authenticity 2.3 Conclusion3 See also 4 References 5 External linksContent[edit] The content of Questions and Replies differs strongly from the other six Military Classics. The armies that existed by the time of the Tang dynasty consisted of infantry, crossbowmen, and cavalry
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List Of Chinese Military Texts
Chinese military texts have existed ever since Chinese civilization was founded. China's armies have long benefited from this rich strategic tradition, influenced by texts such as Sun Tzu's The Art of War, that have deeply influenced military thought.[1] Although traditional Chinese Confucian philosophy favoured peaceful political solutions and showed contempt for brute military force, the military was influential in most Chinese states. The works of well known strategists such as Sun Tzu and Sun Bin have heavily influenced military philosophy, warfare, and political discourse throughout China's long history
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Wikisource
Wikisource
Wikisource
is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource
Wikisource
is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project (each instance usually representing a different language); multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts (its first text was the Déclaration universelle des Droits de l'Homme), it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name Project Sourceberg, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource
Wikisource
was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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The Seven Military Classics
The Seven Military Classics (traditional Chinese: 武經七書; simplified Chinese: 武经七书; pinyin: Wǔjīngqīshū; Wade–Giles: Wu ching ch'i shu) were seven important military texts of ancient China, which also included Sun-tzu's The Art of War. The texts were canonized under this name during the 11th century AD, and from the time of the Song Dynasty, were included in most military encyclopedias.[1] For imperial officers, either some or all of the works were required reading to merit promotion, like the requirement for all bureaucrats to learn and know the work of Confucius. There were many anthologies with different notations and analyses by scholars throughout the centuries leading up to the present versions in Western publishing. The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty commented on the seven military classics, stating, "I have read all of the seven books, among them there are some materials that are not necessarily right, ..
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Emperor Shenzong Of Song
Emperor Shenzong of Song
Emperor Shenzong of Song
(25 May 1048 – 1 April 1085), personal name Zhao Xu, was the sixth emperor of the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
in China. His original personal name was Zhao Zhongzhen but he changed it to "Zhao Xu" after his coronation. He reigned from 1067 until his death in 1085.Contents1 Life and reign 2 Family2.1 Spouses2.1.1 Empresses 2.1.2 Consorts 2.1.3 Imperial Concubines 2.1.4 Minor2.2 Issue2.2.1 Sons 2.2.2 Daughters3 Ancestry 4 See also 5 ReferencesLife and reign[edit] During his reign, Emperor Shenzong became interested in Wang Anshi's policies and appointed Wang as the Chancellor. Wang implemented his famous New Policies aimed at improving the situation for the peasantry and unemployed, which some have seen as a forerunner of the modern welfare state
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Song Dynasty
The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(/sɔːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporary Liao and Western Xia
Western Xia
dynasties in the north and was conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass. The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern
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Tang Dynasty
The Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
or the Tang Empire
Empire
(/tɑːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 唐朝[a]) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture.[5] Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty, and the Tang capital at Chang'an
Chang'an
(present-day Xi'an) was the most populous city in the world. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family (李), who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Li Jing (Tang Dynasty)
Li Jing (571 – July 2, 649[1]), courtesy name Yaoshi,[2] posthumously known as Duke Jingwu of Wei (also spelled as Duke of Wey), was a Chinese general who lived in the early Tang dynasty and was most active during the reign of Emperor Taizong. In 630, Li Jing defeated the Göktürks, led by Jiali Khan, with just 3,000 cavalry soldiers in a surprise attack, allowing the Tang Empire to subjugate the Göktürks and reduce them to the status of a vassal under the Tang Empire. Li Jing and Li Shiji are considered the two most prominent early Tang generals.[3][4]Contents1 During Sui Dynasty 2 During Emperor Gaozu's reign 3 During Emperor Taizong's reign 4 Works attributed to Li Jing 5 Li Jing in fiction 6 ReferencesDuring Sui Dynasty[edit] Li Jing was born in 571, during Sui Dynasty's predecessor state Northern Zhou. His clan was from the Chang'an region
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Tang Dynasty
The Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
or the Tang Empire
Empire
(/tɑːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 唐朝[a]) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture.[5] Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty, and the Tang capital at Chang'an
Chang'an
(present-day Xi'an) was the most populous city in the world. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family (李), who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire
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Emperor Taizong Of Tang
Emperor Taizong of Tang
Emperor Taizong of Tang
(28 January 598  – 10 July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
of China, ruling from 626 to 649. He is traditionally regarded as a co-founder of the dynasty for his role in encouraging Li Yuan, his father, to rebel against the Sui dynasty at Jinyang in 617. Taizong subsequently played a pivotal role in defeating several of the dynasty's most dangerous opponents and solidifying its rule over China.[5][c] Taizong is typically considered to be one of the greatest emperors in China's history and henceforth, his reign became regarded as the exemplary model against which all future emperors were measured. His era, the "Reign of Zhenguan (Chinese: 貞觀之治; pinyin: Zhēnguàn Zhī Zhì)" is considered a golden age in Chinese history and was treated as required studying material for future crown princes
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Seven Military Classics
The Seven Military Classics (traditional Chinese: 武經七書; simplified Chinese: 武经七书; pinyin: Wǔjīngqīshū; Wade–Giles: Wu ching ch'i shu) were seven important military texts of ancient China, which also included Sun-tzu's The Art of War. The texts were canonized under this name during the 11th century AD, and from the time of the Song Dynasty, were included in most military encyclopedias.[1] For imperial officers, either some or all of the works were required reading to merit promotion, like the requirement for all bureaucrats to learn and know the work of Confucius. There were many anthologies with different notations and analyses by scholars throughout the centuries leading up to the present versions in Western publishing. The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty commented on the seven military classics, stating, "I have read all of the seven books, among them there are some materials that are not necessarily right, ..
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