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Qing
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaMongoliaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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Christianity
Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic[1] religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ, or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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Standard Tibetan
Standard Tibetan[4] is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages. It is based on the speech of Lhasa, an Ü-Tsang (Central Tibetan) dialect. For this reason, Standard Tibetan
Standard Tibetan
is often called Lhasa
Lhasa
Tibetan.[5] Tibetan is an official[6] language of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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Regent
A regent (from the Latin
Latin
regens,[1] "[one] ruling"[2]) is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated."[3] The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent". If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent
Regent
ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out
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Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Shuntian Prefecture
A prefecture (from the Latin
Latin
Praefectura) is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.Contents1 Literal prefectures1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Ecclesiastic2 Analogous prefectures2.1 Brazilian equivalent of prefecture 2.2 Prefectures of the Central African Republic 2.3 Greek equivalent of prefecture 2.4 Chinese equivalents of prefecture2.4.1 The ancient sense 2.4.2 The modern sense2.5 Italian prefettura 2.6 French préfecture 2.7 Japanese sense of p
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Tael
Tael
Tael
(/ˈteɪl/;[1] simplified Chinese: 两; traditional Chinese: 兩; pinyin: liǎng) or tahil can refer to any one of several weight measures of the Far East. Most commonly, it refers to the Chinese tael, a part of the Chinese system of weights and currency. In Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
it is equivalent to 10 mace (Chinese: 錢; pinyin: qián) or ​1⁄16 catty,[2][3] albeit with slightly different metric equivalents in these two places
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Chagatai Language
Chagatai (جغتای Jağatāy[2]) is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia, and remained the shared literary language there until the early 20th century. Chagatai is the common predecessor of Uzbek and Uyghur.[3] It was also spoken by the early Mughal rulers in the Indian subcontinent, where it influenced the development of Hindustani. Ali-Shir Nava'i
Ali-Shir Nava'i
was the greatest representative of Chagatai literature.[4]Lizhenggate in the Chengde Mountain Resort, the second column from left is Chagatai language
Chagatai language
written in Arabic script.As part of the preparation for the 1924 establishment of the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan, Chagatai was officially renamed "Old Uzbek",[5][6][3][7][8] which Edward A
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Shamanism
Shamanism
Shamanism
is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.[1] A shaman (/ˈʃɑːmən/ SHAH-men) is someone who is regarded as having access to, and influence in, the world of benevolent and malevolent spirits, who typically enters into a trance state during a ritual, and practices divination and healing.[2] The word "shaman" probably originates from the Tungusic E
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Varieties Of Chinese
Chinese, also known as Sinitic,[a] is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible. The differences are similar to those within the Romance languages, with variation particularly strong in the more rugged southeast. These varieties, often called "dialects", have been classified into seven to ten groups, the largest being Mandarin (e.g. Beijing dialect), Wu (e.g. Shanghainese), Min (e.g. Hokkien), and Yue (e.g. Cantonese). Chinese varieties differ most in their phonology, and to a lesser extent in vocabulary and syntax. Southern varieties tend to have fewer initial consonants than northern and central varieties, but more often preserve the Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
final consonants. All have phonemic tones, with northern varieties tending to have fewer distinctions than southern ones
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Qin Dynasty
Huang-LaoHuangdi Sijing HuainanziEarly figuresGuan Zhong Zichan Deng Xi Li Kui Wu QiFounding figuresShen Buhai Duke Xiao of Qin Shang Yang Shen Dao Zhang Yi Xun Kuang Han Fei Li Si Qin Shi HuangHan figuresJia Yi Liu An Emperor Wen of Han Emperor Wu of Han Chao Cuo Gongsun Hong Zhang Tang Huan Tan Wang Fu Zhuge LiangLater figuresEmperor Wen of Sui Du You Wang Anshi Li Shanchang Zhang Juzheng Xu Guangqiv t eHistory of ChinaANCIENTNeolithic c. 8500 – c. 2070 BC Xia dynasty
Xia dynasty
c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
c. 1600 – c. 1046 BC Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
c
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Heaven Worship
Model humanity:Xian ZhenrenWen and wuPracticesFenxiang JingxiangFeng shui MiaohuiWu shamanismJitong mediumshipPrecious scrollsInstitutions and templesAssociations of good-doingLineage associations or churchesChinese temple Ancestral shrineChinese Folk Temples' AssociationFestivalsQingming Zhongyuan Zhongqiu Jiuhuangye Qixi Duanwu NianInternal traditions Major cultural formsChinese ancestral religionChinese communal deity religionChinese mother goddess worshipNortheast China folk religionMain philosophical traditions: Confucianism
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