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Qin Shi Huang
Huang-LaoHuangdi Sijing HuainanziEarly figuresGuan Zhong Zichan Deng Xi Li Kui Wu QiFounding figuresShen Buhai Duke Xiao of Qin Shang Yang Shen Dao Zhang Yi Xun Kuang Han Fei Li Si Qin Shi HuangHan figuresJia Yi Liu An Emperor Wen of Han Emperor Wu of Han Chao Cuo Gongsun Hong Zhang Tang Huan Tan Wang Fu Zhuge LiangLater figuresEmperor Wen of Sui Du You Wang Anshi Li Shanchang Zhang Juzheng Xu Guangqiv t e Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
(Chinese: 秦始皇; literally: "First Emperor of Qin",  pronunciation (help·info)) or Shihuangdi (Chinese: 始皇帝; literally: "First Emperor"; 18 February 259 BC – 10 September 210 BC) was the founder of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
(秦朝) and was the first emperor of a unified China. He was born Ying Zheng (嬴政) or Zhao Zheng (趙政), a prince of the state of Qin
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Huangdi Sijing
The Huangdi Sijing
Huangdi Sijing
(simplified Chinese: 黄帝四经; traditional Chinese: 黃帝四經; pinyin: Huángdì sìjīng; lit. "The Yellow Emperor's Four Classics") are long-lost Chinese manuscripts that were discovered among the Mawangdui Silk Texts
Mawangdui Silk Texts
in 1973. Also known as the Huang-Lao boshu (simplified Chinese: 黄老帛书; traditional Chinese: 黃老帛書; pinyin: Huáng-Lǎo bóshū; lit. "Huang-Lao Silk Texts"), they are thought by modern scholars to reflect a lost branch of early syncretist Daoism, referred to as the "Huang–Lao school of thought" named after the legendary Huangdi (黃帝 the "Yellow Emperor") and Laozi
Laozi
(老子 "Master Lao")
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Old Chinese
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.[a] The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BC, in the late Shang dynasty. Bronze inscriptions became plentiful during the following Zhou dynasty. The latter part of the Zhou period saw a flowering of literature, including classical works such as the Analects, the Mencius, and the Zuozhuan. These works served as models for Literary Chinese (or Classical Chinese), which remained the written standard until the early twentieth century, thus preserving the vocabulary and grammar of late Old Chinese. Old Chinese
Old Chinese
was written with an early form of Chinese characters, with each character representing a monosyllabic word. Although the script is not alphabetic, most characters were created by adapting a character for a similar-sounding word
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Cantonese
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese
Cantonese
was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p
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Jyutping
Jyutping
Jyutping
(Chinese: 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: [jỳːt̚.pʰēŋ]) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation
Romanisation
Scheme
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Southern Min
Southern Min, or Minnan (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in Taiwan
Taiwan
and in certain parts of China
China
including Fujian
Fujian
(especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.[4] The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. It is the largest Min Chinese
Min Chinese
branch and the most widely distributed Min Chinese
Min Chinese
subgroup. In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min
Southern Min
refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min
Southern Min
originating from Southern Fujian
Fujian
in Mainland China
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern MinAmoy TaiwaneseCreator Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest TalmageTime periodsince the 1830sParent systemsEgyptian hieroglyphsProto-SinaiticPhoenician alphabetGreek alphabetLatin alphabetPe̍h-ōe-jīChild systemsTLPA Taiwanese Romanization SystemThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
(pronounced [peʔ˩ ue˩ dzi˨] ( listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
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Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
(formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions. The Swedish linguist Bernard Karlgren believed that the dictionaries recorded a speech standard of the capital Chang'an
Chang'an
of the Sui and Tang dynasties. However, based on the more recently recovered preface of the Qieyun, most scholars now believe that it records a compromise between northern and southern reading and poetic traditions from the late Northern and Southern dynasties period. This composite system contains important information for the reconstruction of the preceding system of Old Chinese phonology (1st millennium BC). The fanqie method used to indicate pronunciation in these dictionaries, though an improvement on earlier methods, proved awkward in practice
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Traditional Chinese Law
Traditional Chinese law refers to the laws, regulations and rules used in China
China
up to 1911, when the last imperial dynasty fell. It has undergone continuous development since at least the 11th century BC. This legal tradition is distinct from the common law and civil law traditions of the West – as well as Islamic law and classical Hindu law – and to a great extent, is contrary to the concepts of contemporary Chinese law. It incorporates elements of both Legalist and Confucian
Confucian
traditions of social order and governance. To Westerners, perhaps the most striking feature of the traditional Chinese criminal procedure is that it was an inquisitorial system where the judge, usually the district magistrate, conducts a public investigation of a crime, rather than an adversarial system where the judge decides between attorneys representing the prosecution and defense
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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Chinese Law
Chinese law is one of the oldest legal traditions in the world. In the 20th and 21st centuries, law in China inherits a large number of traditions. The core of modern Chinese law is based on Germanic-style civil law, socialist law, and traditional Chinese approaches. For most of the history of China, its legal system has been based on the Confucian philosophy of social control through moral education, as well as the Legalist emphasis on codified law and criminal sanction. Following the Revolution of 1911, the Republic of China
Republic of China
adopted a largely Western-style legal code[citation needed] in the civil law tradition (specifically German-influenced). The establishment of the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
in 1949 brought with it a more Soviet-influenced system of socialist law
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Fengjian
Fēngjiàn (封建) was a political ideology during the later part of the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
of ancient China, its social structure forming a decentralized system of government[1] based on four occupations, or "four categories of the people." The Zhou kings enfeoffed their fellow warriors and relatives, creating large domains of land. The Fengjian system they created allocated a region or piece of land to an individual, establishing him as the ruler of that region. These eventually rebelled against the Zhou Kings,[2] and developed into their own kingdoms, thus ending the centralized rule of the Zhou dynasty.[3] As a result, Chinese history
Chinese history
from the Zhou or Chou dynasty (1046 BC–256 BC) to the Qin dynasty[4] has been termed a feudal period by many Chinese historians, due to the custom of enfeoffment of land similar to that in Europe
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Rectification Of Names
Rectification of Names (Chinese: 正名; pinyin: Zhèngmíng; Wade–Giles: Cheng-ming). Confucius
Confucius
was asked what he would do if he was a governor. He said he would “rectify the names” to make words correspond to reality
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School Of Diplomacy
Diplomacy
Diplomacy
is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations[2] through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians
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Shenzi (other)
Shenzi may refer to:Shen Buhai, Chinese philosopher, or his lost work Chinese: 申子; pinyin: Shēnzi Shen Dao, Chinese philosopher, or his lost work Chinese: 慎子; pinyin: Shènzi Shenzi (The Lion King), a hyena character from Disney's The Lion KingThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Shenzi. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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