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Qatar
Coordinates: 25°30′N 51°15′E / 25.500°N 51.250°E / 25.500; 51.250State of Qatar دولة قطر (Arabic) Dawlat QatarFlagEmblemAnthem: السلام الأميري As-Salam al-Amiri  (transliteration) Amiri SaluteLocation and extent of Qatar
Qatar
(dark green) on the Arabian Peninsula.Capital and largest city Doha 25°18′N 51°31′E / 25.300°N 51.517°E / 25.300; 51.517Official languages ArabicOther languages EnglishEthnic groups (2015[1]) 88.4% non-Qatari 11.6% QatariReligion IslamDemonym QatariGovernment Unitary
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Purchasing Power Parity
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power. Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market. The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Gross Domestic Product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
(GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time. Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Gini Coefficient
In economics, the Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
(/ˈdʒiːni/ JEE-nee; sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality. It was developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variability and Mutability (Italian: Variabilità e mutabilità).[1][2] The Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for example, levels of income). A Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has the same income)
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Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
Universal Time
(abbreviated to UTC) is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude;[1] it does not observe daylight saving time
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Ethnic Groups
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, society, culture or nation.[1][2] Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art, and physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population, often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Constitutional Monarchy
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercise authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.[1] Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework
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Transliteration
Transliteration
Transliteration
is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another[1] that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e). For instance, for the Modern Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic", the usual transliteration to Latin script
Latin script
is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia
Russia
in Cyrillic script, "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya". Transliteration
Transliteration
is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously
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ISO 3166
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions.Contents1 Parts 2 Editions 3 ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency3.1 Members4 See also 5 References 6 External linksParts[edit] It consists of three parts:[1]ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country
Country
codes, defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Country Code Top-level Domain
A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet
Internet
top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII
ASCII
ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs. In 2010, the Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application
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Right- And Left-hand Traffic
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively. This is so fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road.[1] RHT is used in 163 countries and territories, with the remaining 76 countries and territories using LHT. Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's area and a quarter of its roads.[2] In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT.[3] Many of the countries with LHT were formerly part of the British Empire. In addition, Cyprus, Japan, Indonesia
Indonesia
and other countries have retained the LHT tradition
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Demonym
A demonym (/ˈdɛmənɪm/; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.[1] It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously gentilic was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary.[2][3][4] Examples of demonyms include Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast and Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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