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QCD Matter
Quark
Quark
matter or QCD matter
QCD matter
refers to any of a number of theorized phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons.[clarification needed] These theoretical phases would occur at extremely high temperatures and/or densities, billions of times higher than can be produced in equilibrium in laboratories. Under such extreme conditions, the familiar structure of matter, where the basic constituents are nuclei (consisting of nucleons which are bound states of quarks) and electrons, is disrupted. In quark matter it is more appropriate to treat the quarks themselves as the basic degrees of freedom. In the standard model of particle physics, the strong force is described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD)
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Phase Space
In mathematics and physics, a phase space of a dynamical system is a space in which all possible states of a system are represented, with each possible state corresponding to one unique point in the phase space. For mechanical systems, the phase space usually consists of all possible values of position and momentum variables
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Iron
Iron
Iron
is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust
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Compact Star
In astronomy, the term compact star (or compact object) is used to refer collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. It would grow to include exotic stars if such hypothetical dense bodies are confirmed. Most compact stars are the endpoints of stellar evolution and are thus often referred to as stellar remnants, the form of the remnant depending primarily on the mass of the star when it formed. These objects are all small in volume for their mass, giving them a very high density. The term compact star is often used when the exact nature of the star is not known, but evidence suggests that it is very massive and has a small radius, thus implying one of the above-mentioned categories
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Neutron Star
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses. Neutron
Neutron
stars are the smallest and densest stars, not counting hypothetical quark stars and strange stars.[1] Typically, neutron stars have a radius on the order of 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) and a mass between 1.4 and 3 solar masses.[2] They result from the supernova explosion of a massive star, combined with gravitational collapse, that compresses the core past the white dwarf star density to that of atomic nuclei
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Degrees Of Freedom (physics And Chemistry)
In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system. The set of all dimensions of a system is known as a phase space, and degrees of freedom are sometimes referred to as its dimensions.Contents1 Definition 2 Gas molecules 3 Independent degrees of freedom 4 Quadratic degrees of freedom4.1 Quadratic and independent degree of freedom 4.2 Equipartition theorem5 Generalizations 6 ReferencesDefinition[edit] A degree of freedom of a physical system is an independent parameter that is necessary to characterize the state of a physical system. In general, a degree of freedom may be any useful property that is not dependent on other variables. The location of a particle in three-dimensional space requires three position coordinates. Similarly, the direction and speed at which a particle moves can be described in terms of three velocity components, each in reference to the three dimensions of space
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Strangelet
A strangelet is a hypothetical particle consisting of a bound state of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks. An equivalent description is that a strangelet is a small fragment of strange matter, small enough to be considered a particle. The size of an object composed of strange matter could, theoretically, range from a few femtometers across (with the mass of a light nucleus) to arbitrarily large. Once the size becomes macroscopic (on the order of metres across), such an object is usually called a strange star. The term "strangelet" originates with Edward Farhi and R. L
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Lepton
A lepton is an elementary, half-integer spin (spin ​1⁄2) particle that does not undergo strong interactions.[1] Two main classes of leptons exist: charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos). Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms and positronium, while neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed. The best known of all leptons is the electron. There are six types of leptons, known as flavours, forming three generations.[2] The first generation is the electronic leptons, comprising the electron (e−) and electron neutrino (ν e); the second is the muonic leptons, comprising the muon (μ−) and muon neutrino (ν μ); and the third is the tauonic leptons, comprising the tau (τ−) and the tau neutrino (ν τ). Electrons have the least mass of all the charged leptons
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Cosmic Rays
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System[1] and even from distant galaxies.[2] Upon impact with the Earth's atmosphere, cosmic rays can produce showers of secondary particles that sometimes reach the surface
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Cosmic Ray
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System[1] and even from distant galaxies.[2] Upon impact with the Earth's atmosphere, cosmic rays can produce showers of secondary particles that sometimes reach the surface
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Noble Gas
Legendprimordial elementelement by radioactive decay Atomic number
Atomic number
color: red=gasv t eThe noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity. The six noble gases that occur naturally are helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon (Rn). Oganesson
Oganesson
(Og) is variously predicted to be a noble gas as well or to break the trend due to relativistic effects; its chemistry has not yet been investigated. For the first six periods of the periodic table, the noble gases are exactly the members of group 18. Noble gases are typically highly unreactive except when under particular extreme conditions. The inertness of noble gases makes them very suitable in applications where reactions are not wanted
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List Of Unsolved Problems In Physics
Some of the major unsolved problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon or experimental result
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Upper Atmosphere
The mesosphere (/ˈmɛsoʊsfɪər/; from Greek mesos "middle" and sphaira "sphere") is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the mesopause. In the mesosphere, temperature decreases as the altitude increases. The upper boundary of the mesosphere is the mesopause, which can be the coldest naturally occurring place on Earth[citation needed] with temperatures below −143 °C (−225 °F; 130 K)
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Alice
Alice may refer to: Alice (given name), including a list of notable people and fictional characters called AliceContents1 Literature 2 Computers2.1 Video games3 Films 4 Television 5 Music5.1 Albums 5.2 Artists and bands 5.3 Songs6 Places 7 Radio stations 8 Royal princesses 9 Ships 10 Other uses 11 See alsoLiterature[edit] Alice (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland), a character in books by Lewis Carroll
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Particle Collider
A collider is a type of particle accelerator involving directed beams of particles. Colliders may either be ring accelerators or linear accelerators, and may collide a single beam of particles against a stationary target or two beams head-on. Colliders are used as a research tool in particle physics by accelerating particles to very high kinetic energy and letting them impact other particles. Analysis of the byproducts of these collisions gives scientists good evidence of the structure of the subatomic world and the laws of nature governing it. These may become apparent only at high energies and for tiny periods of time, and therefore may be hard or impossible to study in other ways.Contents1 Explanation 2 History 3 Operating colliders 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksExplanation[edit] In particle physics one gains knowledge about elementary particles by accelerating particles to very high kinetic energy and letting them impact on other particles
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Large Hadron Collider
The Large Hadron
Hadron
Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built, and the largest single machine in the world.[1] It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries, as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories.[2] It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference, as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France–Switzerland border
France–Switzerland border
near Geneva. Its first research run took place from March 2010 to early 2013 at an energy of 3.5 to 4 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam (7 to 8 TeV total), about 4 times the previous world record for a collider.[3][4] Afterwards, the accelerator was upgraded for two years
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