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Pythagoras
Pythagoras
Pythagoras
of Samos
Samos
(US: /pɪˈθæɡərəs/,[2] UK: /paɪˈθæɡərəs/;[3] Ancient Greek: Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάμιος, translit. Pythagóras ho Sámios, lit. ' Pythagoras
Pythagoras
the Samian', or simply Πυθαγόρας; Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek; c. 570 – c. 495 BC)[Notes 1][4] was an Ionian Greek
Ionian Greek
philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism
Pythagoreanism
movement. His political and religious teachings were well-known in Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
and influenced the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and, through them, Western philosophy. Knowledge of Pythagoras's life is largely clouded by legend and obfuscation, but he appears to have been the son of Mnesarchus, a seal engraver on the island of Samos
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Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
PRS (/ˈnjuːtən/;[6] 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27[1]) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton also made pathbreaking contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
for developing the infinitesimal calculus. Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries
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Metaphysics
Metaphysics
Metaphysics
is a branch of philosophy that explores the fundamental questions, including the nature of concepts like being, existence, and reality.[1] It has two branches – cosmology and ontology. Traditional metaphysics seeks to answer, in a "suitably abstract and fully general manner", the questions:[2]What is there? And what is it like?Topics of metaphysical investigation include existence, objects and their properties, space and time, cause and effect, and possibility. A central branch of metaphysics is ontology, the investigation into the basic categories of being and how they relate to one another. There are two broad conceptions about what is the "world" studied by metaphysics. The strong, classical view assumes that the objects studied by metaphysics exist independently of any observer, so that the subject is the most fundamental of all sciences
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Proportionality (mathematics)
In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them. The constant is called the coefficient of proportionality or proportionality constant.If one variable is always the product of the other variable and a constant, the two are said to be directly proportional. x and y are directly proportional if the ratio y/x is constant. If the product of the two variables is always a constant, the two are said to be inversely proportional. x and y are inversely proportional if the product xy is constant.To express the statement "y is directly proportional to x" mathematically, we write an equation y = cx, where c is the proportionality constant. Symbolically, this is written as y ∝ x. To express the statement "y is inversely proportional to x" mathematically, we write an equation y = c/x
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Geographical Zone
The five main latitude regions of the Earth's surface comprise geographical zones, divided by the major circles of latitude. The differences between them relate to climate. They are as follows:The North frigid zone, between the Arctic Circle 66.5° N and the North Pole 90° N. Covers 4.12% of Earth's surface. The North temperate zone, between the Tropic of Cancer 23.5° N and the Arctic Circle 66.5° N. Covers 25.99% of Earth's surface. The Torrid zone, between the Tropic of Cancer 23.5° N and the Tropic of Capricorn 23.5° S. Covers 39.78% of Earth's surface. The South temperate zone, between the Tropic of Capricorn 23.5° S and the Antarctic Circle 66.5° S. Covers 25.99% of Earth's surface. The South frigid zone, from Antarctic Circle 66.5° S and the South Pole 90° S
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Communalism
Communalism usually refers to a system that integrates communal ownership and federations of highly localized independent communities. A prominent libertarian socialist, Murray Bookchin, defines the Communalism political philosophy that he developed as "a theory of government or a system of government in which independent communes participate in a federation", as well as "the principles and practice of communal ownership". The terms 'government' and 'autonomous' in this case do not imply an acceptance of a State, parochialism, or individualism.[1][2] This usage of communalism appears to have emerged during the late 20th century to distinguish commune-based systems from other political movements and/or governments espousing (if not actually practicing) similar ideas
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Religion
There is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.[1][2] It may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophesies, ethics, or organizations, that relate humanity to the supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine,[3] sacred things,[4] faith,[5] a supernatural being or supernatural beings[6] or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life".[7] Religious practices may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of deities), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places, that aim mostly to give a
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Politics
Politics
Politics
(from Greek: πολιτικά, translit. Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.[1] It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state.[2] In modern nation states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas. They agree to take the same position on many issues, and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders.[3] An election is usually a competition between different parties.[4] Some examples of political parties are the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Tories
Tories
in Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Indian National Congress. Politics
Politics
is a multifaceted word
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Ethics
Ethics
Ethics
or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.[1] The term ethics derives from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἠθικός (ethikos), from ἦθος (ethos), meaning 'habit, custom'. The branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics, each concerned with values.[2] Ethics
Ethics
seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime
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Mysticism
Mysticism
Mysticism
is popularly known as becoming one with God
God
or the Absolute, but may refer to any kind of ecstasy or altered state of consciousness which is given a religious or spiritual meaning.[web 1] It may also refer to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden truths,
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Music
Music
Music
is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music
Music
is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments
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Capitoline Museums
The Capitoline Museums
Capitoline Museums
(Italian: Musei Capitolini) are a single museum containing a group of art and archeological museums in Piazza
Piazza
del Campidoglio, on top of the Capitoline Hill
Capitoline Hill
in Rome, Italy. The historic seats of the museums are Palazzo dei Conservatori
Palazzo dei Conservatori
and Palazzo Nuovo, facing on the central trapezoidal piazza in a plan conceived by Michelangelo
Michelangelo
in 1536 and executed over a period of more than 400 years. The history of the museums can be traced to 1471, when Pope Sixtus IV donated a collection of important ancient bronzes to the people of Rome
Rome
and located them on the Capitoline Hill
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Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
(Italian: [duˈrante deʎʎ aliˈɡjɛːri]), simply called Dante (Italian: [ˈdante], UK: /ˈdænti/, US: /ˈdɑːnteɪ/; c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages/Early Renaissance. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Boccaccio, is widely considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.[1][2] In the late Middle Ages, most poetry was written in Latin, accessible only to the most educated readers. In De vulgari eloquentia
De vulgari eloquentia
(On Eloquence in the Vernacular), however, Dante defended use of the vernacular in literature
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Rome
Rome
Rome
(/roʊm/ ROHM; Italian: Roma i[ˈroːma]; Latin: Roma [ˈroːma]) is the capital of Italy
Italy
and a special comune (named Comune
Comune
di Roma Capitale). Rome
Rome
also serves as the capital of the Lazio
Lazio
region. With 2,874,558 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi),[1] it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union
European Union
by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents.[2] Rome
Rome
is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber
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Moderatus Of Gades
Moderatus of Gades (Greek: Μοδερᾶτος) was a Greek philosopher of the Neopythagorean
Neopythagorean
school, who lived in the 1st century AD (contemporary with Apollonius of Tyana). He wrote a great work on the doctrines of the Pythagoreans, and tried to show that the successors of Pythagoras had made no additions to the views of their founder, but had merely borrowed and altered the phraseology. He has been given an exaggerated importance by some commentators, who have regarded him as the forerunner of the Alexandrian School of philosophy. Zeller has shown that the authority on which this view is based is unsound
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