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Push-button Telephone
The push-button telephone is a telephone that has electronic buttons or keys for dialing a telephone number. This phone was easier and quicker to use than the rotary dial phone because the caller pressed buttons rather than having to turn a dial. Western Electric experimented as early as 1941 with methods of using mechanically activated reeds to produce two tones for each of the ten digits and by the late 1940s such technology was field-tested in a No. 5 Crossbar switching system in Pennsylvania. But the technology proved unreliable and it was not until long after the invention of the transistor when push-button technology matured. On 18 November 1963, after approximately three years of customer testing, the Bell System in the United States officially introduced dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) technology under its registered Touch-Tone mark
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Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania (/ˌpɛnsəlˈvniə/ (About this soundlisten) PEN-səl-VAY-nee-ə), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the Northeastern, Great Lakes, Appalachian, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, and the 5th-most populous state according to the most recent official U.S. Census count in 2010. It is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia (1,580,863), and Pittsburgh (302,407)
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Interactive Voice Response
Interactive voice response (IVR) is a technology that allows a computer to interact with humans through the use of voice and DTMF tones input via a keypad. In telecommunications, IVR allows customers to interact with a company’s host system via a telephone keypad or by speech recognition, after which services can be inquired about through the IVR dialogue. IVR systems can respond with pre-recorded or dynamically generated audio to further direct users on how to proceed. IVR systems deployed in the network are sized to handle large call volumes and also used for outbound calling, as IVR systems are more intelligent than many predictive dialer systems. IVR systems can be used for mobile purchases, banking payments and services, retail orders, utilities, travel information and weather conditions. A common misconception refers to an automated attendant as an IVR
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Personal Identification Number
A personal identification number (PIN), or sometimes redundantly a PIN number, is a numeric or alpha-numeric password used in the process of authenticating a user accessing a system. The personal identification number has been the key to flourishing the exchange of private data between different data-processing centers in computer networks for financial institutions, governments, and enterprises. PINs may be used to authenticate banking systems with cardholders, governments with citizens, enterprises with employees, and computers with users, among other uses. In common usage, PINs are used in ATM or POS transactions, secure access control (e.g
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Out-of-band Signaling
In telecommunication, signaling has the following meanings:

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Strowger Switch
The Strowger switch is the first commercially successful electromechanical stepping switch telephone exchange system. It was developed by the Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange Company founded in 1891 by Almon Brown Strowger
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Foreign Exchange Service (telecommunications)
Foreign exchange service (FX) is a telecommunications network service in which a telephone in a given exchange area is connected, via a private line (as opposed to a trunk line), to a telephone exchange or central office in another foreign exchange, rather than the local exchange area where the device is located. To call originators, it appears that the called party having the FX service is located i
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Party Line (telephony)
A party line (multiparty line, shared service line, party wire) is a local loop telephone circuit that is shared by multiple telephone service subscribers. Party line systems were widely used to provide telephone service, starting with the first commercial switchboards in 1878. A majority of Bell System subscribers in the mid-20th century in the United States and Canada were serviced by party lines, which carried a billing discount over individual service; during wartime shortages, these were often the only available lines. British users similarly benefited from the party line discount
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Number Sign
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