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Punic Wars
The Punic Wars
Punic Wars
were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage
Carthage
from 264 BC to 146 BC.[1] At the time, they were some of the largest wars that had ever taken place.[2] The term Punic comes from the Latin
Latin
word Punicus (or Poenicus), meaning "Carthaginian", with reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician ancestry.[3] The main cause of the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
was the conflicts of interest between the existing Carthaginian Empire and the expanding Roman Republic. The Romans were initially interested in expansion via Sicily
Sicily
(which at that time was a cultural melting pot), part of which lay under Carthaginian control. At the start of the First Punic War
First Punic War
(264-241 BC), Carthage
Carthage
was the dominant power of the Western Mediterranean, with an extensive maritime empire
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City-state
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories. Historically, this included cities such as Rome, Athens, Carthage,[1] and the Italian city-states
Italian city-states
during the Renaissance. As of March 2018 only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies currently to Singapore, Monaco, and Vatican City. City states are also sometimes called micro-states which however also includes other configurations of very small countries. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, and therefore are sometimes also cited as modern city-states
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Antiochus III The Great
Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus III the Great
/ænˈtaɪəkəs/ (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241 – 187 BC, ruled 222–187 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.[1][2][3] He ruled over the region of Syria
Syria
and large parts of the rest of western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BC. Rising to the throne at the age of eighteen in 222 BC, his early campaigns against the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
were unsuccessful, but in the following years Antiochus gained several military victories and substantially expanded the empire's territory. His traditional designation, the Great, reflects an epithet he assumed. He also assumed the title Basileus
Basileus
Megas (Greek for "Great King"), the traditional title of the Persian kings
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Treaty Of Apamea
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an (international) agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms
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Mainland Italy
42°N 14°E / 42°N 14°E / 42; 14 37°N 15°E / 37°N 15°E / 37; 15Area 131,337 km2 (50,709 sq mi)Highest point Corno GrandeAdministration ItalyLargest settlement Rome San MarinoLargest settlement Dogana  Vatican CityLargest settlement Itself (City-state)DemographicsDemonym ApenninenPop. density 199.27 /km2 (516.11 /sq mi)Ethnic groups ItalianThe Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends 1,000 km (620 mi) from the Po Valley
Po Valley
in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the south. The peninsula's shape gives it the nickname lo Stivale (the Boot)
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Tunisia
Islam
Islam
(state religion; 99.1% Sunni[9] others (1%; including Christian, Jewish, Shia, Bahá'í)[9]Demonym TunisianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic[12][13]• PresidentBeji Caid Essebsi• Head of GovernmentYoussef ChahedLegislature Assembly of the Representatives of the PeopleFormation•  Husainid Dynasty
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Thalassocracy
A thalassocracy (from Classical Greek
Classical Greek
θάλασσα (thalassa), meaning "sea", and κρατεῖν (kratein), meaning "power", giving Koine Greek
Koine Greek
θαλασσοκρατία (thalassokratia), "sea power") is a state with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea (such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities) or a seaborne empire.[1] Traditional thalassocracies seldom dominate interiors, even in their home territories: Phoenician Tyre, Sidon
Sidon
and Carthage or Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and Majapahit
Majapahit
in Southeast Asia
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Roman Italy
Italia was the name of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
during the Roman era. It was not a province, but the territory of the city of Rome, thus having a special status.[1] Italy and its borders expanded over time, until Augustus
Augustus
finally organized it as an administrative division consisting of eleven regions (from the Alps
Alps
to the Ionian Sea). The islands of Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily
Sicily
and Malta
Malta
were added to Italy by Diocletian in 292 AD. Roman Italy
Roman Italy
remained united until the sixth century, when it was divided between the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and territories of the Germanic peoples
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Western Mediterranean
The Mediterranean Sea
Sea
is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe
Southern Europe
and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa
North Africa
and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water
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Po (river)
The Po (/poʊ/; Latin: Padus and Eridanus; Italian: Po [pɔ]; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Ancient Greek: Πάδος, Ancient Greek: Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy. The Po flows either 652 km (405 mi) or 682 km (424 mi) – considering the length of the Maira, a right bank tributary. The headwaters of the Po are a spring seeping from a stony hillside at Pian del Re, a flat place at the head of the Val Po
Val Po
under the northwest face of Monviso
Monviso
(in the Cottian Alps). The Po ends at a delta projecting into the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
near Venice
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Hiero II Of Syracuse
Hiero II (Greek: Ἱέρων Β΄; c. 308 BC – 215 BC) was the Greek Sicilian Tyrant of Syracuse from 270 to 215 BC, and the illegitimate son of a Syracusan noble, Hierocles, who claimed descent from Gelon. He was a former general of Pyrrhus of Epirus
Pyrrhus of Epirus
and an important figure of the First Punic War.[1]Contents1 Punic War 2 As King
King
of Syracuse 3 Legacy and honors 4 ReferencesPunic War[edit]Image of Philistis
Philistis
(left), the wife of Hiero II, from a coin.On the departure of Pyrrhus from Sicily
Sicily
(275 BC) the Syracusan army and citizens appointed him commander of the troops. He strengthened his position by marrying the daughter of Leptines, the leading citizen. In the meantime, the Mamertines, a body of Campanian mercenaries who had been employed by Agathocles, had seized the stronghold of Messana, and proceeded in harassing the Syracusans
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Messina, Italy
Messina
Messina
(/məˈsiːnə/; Italian pronunciation: [mesˈsiːna] ( listen), Sicilian: Missina; Latin: Messana, Greek: Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina. It is the third-largest city on the island of Sicily, and the 13th-largest city in Italy, with a population of more than 238,000[2] inhabitants in the city proper and about 650,000 in the Metropolitan City. It is located near the northeast corner of Sicily, at the Strait of Messina, opposite Villa San Giovanni on the mainland, and has close ties with Reggio Calabria. According to Eurostat[3] the FUA of the metropolitan area of Messina has, in 2014, 277,584 inhabitants. The city's main resources are its seaports (commercial and military shipyards), cruise tourism, commerce, and agriculture (wine production and cultivating lemons, oranges, mandarin oranges, and olives)
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Seleucid Empire
The Seleucid Empire
Empire
(/sɪˈljuːsɪd/;[6] Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator
founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.[7][8][9][10] Seleucus received Babylonia
Babylonia
(321 BC), and from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near-eastern territories
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Roman Senate
The Roman Senate
Senate
(Latin: Senatus Romanus; Italian: Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 476 AD, and the barbarian rule of Rome
Rome
in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. During the days of the kingdom, it was little more than an advisory council to the king
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Alps
The Alps
Alps
(/ælps/; French: Alpes [alp]; German: Alpen [ˈalpn̩]; Italian: Alpi [ˈalpi]; Romansh: Alps; Slovene: Alpe [ˈáːlpɛ]) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,[2][note 1] stretching approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) across eight Alpine countries
Alpine countries
(from west to east): France, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.[3] The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m (15,781 ft) is the highest mountain in the Alps
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