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Psycholeptics
In pharmacology, a psycholeptic is a medication which produces a calming effect upon a person.[1] Such medications include barbiturates, benzodiazepines, nonbenzodiazepines, phenothiazines, opiates/opioids, carbamates, ethanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, cannabinoids (in some classifications), some antidepressants, neuroleptics, and some anticonvulsants. Many herbal medicines may also be classified as psycholeptics (e.g. kava)[citation needed] The psycholeptics are classified under N05 in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. See also[edit]Psychoanaleptic AnalepticReferences[edit]^ editors, Q. Alan Xu, Timothy L. Madden,; Madden, Timothy L. (2012). LC-MS in drug bioanalysis. New York: Springer. p. 352. ISBN 9781461438281
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Psychoanaleptic
An analeptic, in medicine, is a central nervous system stimulant. The term analeptic typically refers to respiratory analeptics (for example, doxapram). Analeptics are central nervous system stimulants that include a wide variety of medications used to treat depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and respiratory depression. Analeptics can also be used as convulsants, with low doses causing patients to experience heightened awareness, restlessness and rapid breathing.[1] The primary medical use of these drugs is as an anesthetic recovery tool or to treat emergency respiratory depression.[2] Other drugs of this category are prethcamide, pentylenetetrazole, and nikethamide. Nikethamide
Nikethamide
is now withdrawn due to risk of convulsions. Analeptics have recently been used to better understand the treatment of a barbiturate overdose
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Antiplatelet Drug
An antiplatelet drug (antiaggregant) is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decrease platelet aggregation[1] and inhibit thrombus formation
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Laxative
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools[1] and increase bowel movements. They are used to treat and/or prevent constipation. Laxatives vary as to how they work and the side effects they may have. Certain stimulant, lubricant and saline laxatives are used to evacuate the colon for rectal and bowel examinations, and may be supplemented by enemas under certain circumstances. Sufficiently high doses of laxatives may cause diarrhea. Some laxatives combine more than one active ingredient
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Antidiarrhoeal
An anti-diarrhoeal drug (or anti-diarrheal drug in American English) is any medication which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhoea.[1] Types[edit] Electrolyte
Electrolyte
solutions, while not true antidiarrhoeals, are used to replace lost fluids and salts in acute cases. Bulking agents like methylcellulose, guar gum or plant fibre (bran, sterculia, isabgol, etc.) are used for diarrhoea in functional bowel disease and to control ileostomy output. Absorbents absorb toxic substances that cause infective diarrhoea, methylcellulose is an absorbent. Anti-inflammatory compounds such as bismuth subsalicylate. Anticholinergics reduce intestinal movement and are effective against both diarrhoea and accompanying cramping. Opioids' classical use besides pain relief is as an anti-diarrhoeal drug. Opioids have agonist actions on the intestinal opioid receptors, which when activated cause constipation
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Anti-obesity Medication
Anti-obesity
Anti-obesity
medication or weight loss drugs are pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight. These drugs alter one of the fundamental processes of the human body, weight regulation, by altering either appetite, or absorption of calories.[1] The main treatment modalities for overweight and obese individuals remain dieting and physical exercise. In the United States
United States
orlistat (Xenical) is currently approved by the FDA for long-term use.[2][3] It reduces intestinal fat absorption by inhibiting pancreatic lipase. Rimonabant
Rimonabant
(Acomplia), a second drug, works via a specific blockade of the endocannabinoid system. It has been developed from the knowledge that cannabis smokers often experience hunger, which is often referred to as "the munchies"
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Vitamin
A vitamin is an organic compound and an essential nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound is called a vitamin when the organism cannot make the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet; thus, the term vitamin is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, vitamin C is a vitamin for humans, but not most other animals which make enough internally. Vitamin D
Vitamin D
is essential only for people who do not have adequate skin exposure to sunlight, because the ultraviolet light in sunlight normally promotes synthesis of vitamin D
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Dietary Mineral
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.[1][2] Minerals
Minerals
originate in the earth and cannot be made by living organisms.[3] Plants get minerals from soil.[3] Most of the minerals in a human diet come from eating plants and animals or from drinking water.[3] As a group, minerals are one of the four groups of essential nutrients, the others of which are vitamins, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[4] The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium.[1] All of the remaining elements in a human body are called "trace elements". The trace elements that have a specific biochemical function in the human body are sulfur, iron, chlorine, cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, iodine and selenium.[5] Most chemical elements that are ingested by organisms are in the form of simple compounds
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Blood
Blood
Blood
is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.[1] In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),[2] and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells
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ATC Code B
ATC code B Blood
Blood
and blood forming organs is a section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, a system of alphanumeric codes developed by the WHO for the classification of drugs and other medical products.[1] Codes for veterinary use (ATCvet codes) can be created by placing the letter Q in front of the human ATC code: for example, QB.[2] National issues of the ATC classification may include additional codes not present in this list, which follows the WHO version.B Blood
Blood
and blood forming organsB01 Antithrombotic agentsB02 AntihemorrhagicsB03 Antianemic
Antianemic
preparationsB05 Blood
Blood
substitutes and perfusion solutionsB06 Other hematological agentsA B C D G H QI J L M N P R S VReferences[edit]^ "ATC/DDD Index 2018: code B"
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Antithrombotic
An antithrombotic agent is a drug that reduces the formation of blood clots (thrombi).[1][2] Antithrombotics can be used therapeutically for prevention (primary prevention, secondary prevention) or treatment of a dangerous blood clot (acute thrombus)
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Anticoagulant
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time. Some of them occur naturally in blood-eating animals such as leeches and mosquitoes, where they help keep the bite area unclotted long enough for the animal to obtain some blood. As a class of medications, anticoagulants are used in therapy for thrombotic disorders. Oral anticoagulants (OACs) are taken by many people in pill or tablet form, and various intravenous anticoagulant dosage forms are used in hospitals. Some anticoagulants are used in medical equipment, such as test tubes, blood transfusion bags, and dialysis equipment. Anticoagulants are closely related to antiplatelet drugs and thrombolytic drugs by manipulating the various pathways of blood coagulation
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Proton Pump Inhibitor
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production. Within the class of medications, there is no clear evidence that one agent works better than another.[1][2] They are the most potent inhibitors of acid secretion available.[3] This group of drugs followed and largely superseded another group of medications with similar effects, but a different mode of action, called H2-receptor antagonists. PPIs are among the most widely sold drugs in the world, and the first one, omeprazole, is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.[4] The cost between different agents varies significantly.[1]Contents1 Medical uses 2 Adverse effects2.1 Nutritional 2.2 Gastrointestinal 2.3 Cardiovascular 2.4 Other3 Mechanism of action 4 Pharmacokinetics 5 Examples 6 History 7 Society and culture7.1 Cost 7.2 Regulatory approval8 References 9 External linksMedical uses[edit] The
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Thrombolytic Drug
Thrombolysis is the breakdown (lysis) of blood clots formed in blood vessels, using medication. It is used in ST elevation myocardial infarction, stroke, and very large pulmonary embolisms. The main complication is bleeding (which can be dangerous), and in some situations thrombolysis may therefore be unsuitable
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