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Psychiatry
Psychiatry
Psychiatry
is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders.[1][2] These include various maladaptations related to mood, behaviour, cognition, and perceptions. See glossary of psychiatry. Initial psychiatric assessment of a person typically begins with a case history and mental status examination. Physical examinations and psychological tests may be conducted. On occasion, neuroimaging or other neurophysiological techniques are used.[3] Mental disorders are often diagnosed in accordance with clinical concepts listed in diagnostic manuals such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), edited and used by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) and the widely used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA)
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Biology
Biology
Biology
is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.[1] Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches. Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology
Biology
recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy[2] to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Inpatient
A patient is any recipient of health care services. The patient is most often ill or injured and in need of treatment by a physician, advanced practice registered nurse, physiotherapist, physician assistant, psychologist, dentist, podiatrist, veterinarian, or other health care provider.Contents1 Etymology 2 Outpatients and inpatients 3 Day patient 4 Alternative terminology 5 Patient-centered healthcare 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEtymology[edit] The word patient originally meant 'one who suffers'. This English noun comes from the Latin
Latin
word patiens, the present participle of the deponent verb, patior, meaning 'I am suffering,' and akin to the Greek verb πάσχειν (= paskhein, to suffer) and its cognate noun πάθος (= pathos).Outpatients and inpatients[edit] An outpatient (or out-patient) is a patient who is hospitalized for less than 24 hours
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Outpatient
A patient is any recipient of health care services. The patient is most often ill or injured and in need of treatment by a physician, advanced practice registered nurse, physiotherapist, physician assistant, psychologist, dentist, podiatrist, veterinarian, or other health care provider.Contents1 Etymology 2 Outpatients and inpatients 3 Day patient 4 Alternative terminology 5 Patient-centered healthcare 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEtymology[edit] The word patient originally meant 'one who suffers'. This English noun comes from the Latin
Latin
word patiens, the present participle of the deponent verb, patior, meaning 'I am suffering,' and akin to the Greek verb πάσχειν (= paskhein, to suffer) and its cognate noun πάθος (= pathos).Outpatients and inpatients[edit] An outpatient (or out-patient) is a patient who is hospitalized for less than 24 hours
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Epidemiologists
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. In short, trying to work out why certain people are getting ill. It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists help with study design, collection, and statistical analysis of data, amend interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and occasional systematic review)
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Psychological Testing
Psychological
Psychological
testing refers to the administration of psychological tests. A psychological test is "an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior".[1] The term sample of behavior refers to an individual's performance on tasks that have usually been prescribed beforehand. The samples of behavior that make up a paper-and-pencil test, the most common type of test, are a series of items. Performance on these items produce a test score. A score on a well-constructed test is believed to reflect a psychological construct such as achievement in a school subject, cognitive ability, aptitude, emotional functioning, personality, etc. Differences in test scores are thought to reflect individual differences in the construct the test is supposed to measure
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Psychologists
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.[1] To become a psychologist, a person often completes a graduate university degree in psychology, but in most jurisdictions, members of other behavioral professions (such as counselors and psychiatrists) can also evaluate, diagnose, treat, and study mental processes.[2]Contents1 Professional practice1.1 Clinical psychologists 1.2 Contrasted with psychiatrists2 Licensing and regulations2.1 Australia 2.2 Belgium 2.3 Finland 2.4 Germany 2.5 Greece 2.6 The Netherlands 2.7 New Zealand 2.8 South Africa 2.9 Sweden 2.10 United Kingdom2.10.1 Employment2.11 United States and Canada2.11.1 Regulation 2.11.2 Schooling 2.11.3 Licensure 2.11.4 Employment3 See also 4 References 5 External linksProfessional pract
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Medical History
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient. The medically relevant complaints reported by the patient or others familiar with the patient are referred to as symptoms, in contrast with clinical signs, which are ascertained by direct examination on the part of medical personnel. Most health encounters will result in some form of history being taken. Medical
Medical
histories vary in their depth and focus. For example, an ambulance paramedic would typically limit their history to important details, such as name, history of presenting complaint, allergies, etc
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Soul
In many religious, philosophical and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul.[1] Soul
Soul
or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc. Depending on the philosophical system, a soul can either be mortal or immortal.[2] In Judeo-Christianity, only human beings have immortal souls (although immortality is disputed within Judaism
Judaism
and may have been influenced by Plato[3]). For example, the Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
attributed "soul" (anima) to all organisms but argued that only human souls are immortal.[4] Other religions (most notably Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism) hold that all biological organisms have souls (atman, jiva) and a 'vital principle' (prana), as did Aristotle
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Maladaptation
A maladaptation (/ˌmælædæpˈteɪʃən/) is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits. In animals (including humans), adaptive behaviors contrast with maladaptive ones. Like adaptation, maladaptation may be viewed as occurring over geological time, or within the lifetime of one individual or a group. It can also signify an adaptation that, whilst reasonable at the time, has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on. This is because it is possible for an adaptation to be poorly selected or become less appropriate or even become on balance more of a dysfunction than a positive adaptation, over time. Note that the concept of maladaptation, as initially discussed in a late 19th-century context, is based on a flawed view of evolutionary theory
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Butterfly
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. The group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers (formerly the superfamily "Hesperioidea") and the most recent analyses suggest it also contains the moth-butterflies (formerly the superfamily "Hedyloidea"). Butterfly
Butterfly
fossils date to the Paleocene, which was about 56 million years ago. Butterflies have the typical four-stage insect life cycle. Winged adults lay eggs on the food plant on which their larvae, known as caterpillars, will feed. The caterpillars grow, sometimes very rapidly, and when fully developed, pupate in a chrysalis
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Coat Of Arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters, crest, and motto
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Mind
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory
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Medical Research
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research),[1] involving the explanation of more fundamental scientific principles, to clinical research, which is distinguished by the involvement of patients. Within this spectrum is applied research, or translational research conducted to aid and support the development of knowledge in the field of medicine, and pre-clinical research, for example involving animals. Both clinical and pre-clinical research phases exist in the pharmaceutical industry's drug development pipelines, where the clinical phase is denoted by the term clinical trial. However, only part of the clinical or pre-clinical research is oriented towards a specific pharmaceutical purpose
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Human
Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens Homo
Homo
sapiens population densitySynonyms Species
Species
synonymy[1]aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 americanus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 arabicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 aurignacensis Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 australasicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cafer Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 capensis Broom, 1917 columbicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911) grimaldiensis Gregory, 1921 grimaldii Lapouge, 1906 hottentotus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 hyperboreus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 indicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 japeticus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 melaninus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 monstrosus Linnaeus, 1758 neptunianus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932 patagonus Bory de St
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