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Pseudoscorpiones
A pseudoscorpion, also known as a false scorpion or book scorpion, is an arachnid belonging to the order Pseudoscorpiones, also known as Pseudoscorpionida or Chelonethida. Pseudoscorpions are generally beneficial to humans since they prey on clothes moth larvae, carpet beetle larvae, booklice, ants, mites, and small flies. They are tiny and inoffensive, and are rarely seen due to their small size, despite being common in many environments. Pseudoscorpions often carry out phoresy, a form of commensalism in which one organism uses another for the purpose of transport.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Behavior 3 Distribution 4 Evolution 5 Historical references 6 Classification 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksCharacteristics[edit] Pseudoscorpions belong to the arachnida class.[1] They are small arachnids with a flat, pear-shaped body and pincers that resemble those of scorpions
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Sternite
The sternum (pl. "sterna") is the ventral portion of a segment of an arthropod thorax or abdomen. In insects, the sterna are usually single, large sclerites, and external. However, they can sometimes be divided in two or more, in which case the subunits are called sternites,[1] and may also be modified on the terminal abdominal segments so as to form part of the functional genitalia, in which case they are frequently reduced in size and development, and may become internalized and/or membranous. For a detailed explanation of the terminology, see [2] Kinorhynchs
Kinorhynchs
have tergal and sternal plates too, though seemingly not homologous with those of arthropods.[3]Ventrites are externally visible sternites. Usually the first sternite is covered up, so that vertrite numbers do not correspond to sternid numbers. The term is also used in other arthropod groups such as crustaceans, arachnids and myriapods
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Psocoptera
Psocoptera
Psocoptera
are an order of insects that are commonly known as booklice, barklice or barkflies.[1] They first appeared in the Permian period, 295–248 million years ago. They are often regarded as the most primitive of the hemipteroids.[2] Their name originates from the Greek word ψῶχος, psokhos meaning gnawed or rubbed and πτερά, ptera meaning wings.[3] There are more than 5,500 species in 41 families in three suborders. Many of these species have only been described in recent years.[4] They range in size from 1–10 millimeters (0.04–0.4 in) in length. The species known as booklice received their common name because they are commonly found amongst old books—they feed upon the paste used in binding. The barklice are found harmlessly on trees, feeding on algae and lichen
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Ant
MartialinaeLeptanillinaeAmblyoponinaeParaponerinaeAgroecomyrmecinaePonerinaeProceratiinaeEcitoninae‡Aenictinae‡Dorylini‡Aenictogitoninae‡Cerapachyinae‡*Leptanilloidinae‡DolichoderinaeAneuretinaePseudomyrmecinaeMyrmeciinaeEctatomminaeHeteroponerinaeMyrmicinaeFormicinaeA phylogeny of the extant ant subfamilies.[2][3] *Cerapachyinae is paraphyletic ‡ The previous dorylomorph subfamilies were synonymized under Dorylinae
Dorylinae
by Brady et al. in 2014[4]Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period, about 140 million years ago, and diversified after the rise of flowering plants
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Mite
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida
Arachnida
and the subclass Acari
Acari
(also known as Acarina). The term "mite" refers to the members of several groups in Acari
Acari
but it is not a clade, and excludes the ticks, order Ixodida. Mites and ticks are characterised by the body being divided into two regions, the cephalothorax or prosoma (there is no separate head), and an opisthosoma. The scientific discipline devoted to the study of ticks and mites is called acarology. Most mites are tiny, less than 1 mm (0.04 in) in length, and have a simple, unsegmented body plan. Their small size makes them easily overlooked; some species live in water, many live in soil as decomposers, others live on plants, sometimes creating galls, while others again are predators or parasites
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Diptera
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings". Insects of this order use only a single pair of wings to fly, the hindwings having evolved into advanced mechanosensory organs known as halteres, which act as high-speed sensors of rotational movement and allow dipterans to perform advanced aerobatics.[1] Diptera
Diptera
is a large order containing an estimated 1,000,000 species including horse-flies,[a] crane flies, hoverflies and others, although only about 125,000 spec
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Phoresis (biology)
In biology, the term phoresis, also called phoresy, is an inter-species biological interaction in ecology and refers to a form of symbiosis where the symbiont, termed the phoront, is mechanically transported by its host. It is a type of commensalism; neither organism is physiologically dependent on the other.[citation needed] Examples may be found in the arthropods associated with sloths. The coprophagous sloth moths such as Bradipodicola hahneli and Cryptoses choloepi, are unusual in that they are exclusively found inhabiting the fur of the sloths, mammals found in central and South America.[1][2] The sloth provides transport to the moths whose females oviposit in the droppings of sloths, larvae feed on it and newly hatched moths move into the forest canopy in search of a new sloth host. References[edit]^ Sherman, Lee. ""An OSU scientist braves an uncharted rainforest in a search for rare and endangered species" in "Expedition to the Edge"". Terra, Spring 2008
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Scorpion
See classification for families.Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones. They have eight legs[1] and are easily recognized by the pair of grasping pedipalps and the narrow, segmented tail, often carried in a characteristic forward curve over the back, ending with a venomous stinger. Scorpions range in size from 9 mm / 0.3 in. (Typhlochactas mitchelli) to 23 cm / 9 in. (Heterometrus swammerdami).[2] The evolutionary history of scorpions goes back to the Silurian
Silurian
era 430 million years ago. They have adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions and can now be found on all continents except Antarctica. Scorpions number about 1750 described species,[3] with 13 extant (living) families recognised to date
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Ascension Island
Coordinates: 7°56′S 14°22′W / 7.933°S 14.367°W / -7.933; -14.367Ascension IslandFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "God Save the Queen"Capital and largest settlement Georgetown 7°56′S 14°25′W / 7.933°S 14.417°W / -7.933; -14.417Official languages EnglishPart of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaGovernment appointed Administrator• QueenElizabeth II• GovernorLisa Phillips• AdministratorMarc HollandTerritory under United Kingdom• First inhabited1815• Dependency of St Helena12 September 1922• Current constitution1 September 2009Area• Total88 km2 (34 sq mi) (219th)• Water (%)0Population• February 2016 census806[1]Currency
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Opisthosoma
The opisthosoma is the posterior part of the body in some arthropods, behind the prosoma (cephalothorax).[1] It is a distinctive feature of the subphylum Chelicerata
Chelicerata
(arachnids, horseshoe crabs and others). Although it is similar in most respects to an abdomen (and is often referred to as such), the opisthosoma is differentiated by its inclusion of the respiratory organs (book lungs or book gills) and the heart. Segments[edit] The number of segments and appendages on the opisthosoma vary. Scorpions have 13, but the first is only seen during its embryological development. Other arachnids have fewer; harvestmen, for instance, have only ten.[2] In general, appendages are absent or reduced, although in horseshoe crabs they persist as large plate-like limbs, called opercula or branchiophores, bearing the book gills, and that function in locomotion and gas exchange
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Tergite
A tergum (Latin for "the back"; plural terga, associated adjective tergal) is the dorsal ('upper') portion of an arthropod segment other than the head. The anterior edge is called the base and posterior edge is called the apex or margin. A given tergum may be divided into hardened plates or sclerites commonly referred to as tergites.[1]:20 For a detailed explanation of the terminology, see [2] Kinorhynchs have tergal and sternal plates too, though seemingly not homologous with those of arthropods.[3] So, for example, in a thoracic segment, the tergum may be divided into an anterior notum and a posterior scutellum
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Chitin
Chitin
Chitin
(C8H13O5N)n (/ˈkaɪtɪn/ KY-tin), a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose. It is a primary component of cell walls in fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans (e.g., crabs, lobsters and shrimps) and insects, the radulae of molluscs, cephalopod beaks, and the scales of fish and lissamphibians.[1] The structure of chitin is comparable to another polysaccharide - cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers. In terms of function, it may be compared to the protein keratin
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Pedipalp
Pedipalps (commonly shortened to palps or palpi) are the second pair of appendages of chelicerates – a group of arthropods including spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders. The pedipalps are lateral to the chelicerae ("jaws") and anterior to the first pair of walking legs.Contents1 Overview 2 Chelate pedipalps 3 Spider
Spider
pedipalps 4 References 5 External linksOverview[edit] Pedipalps are composed of six segments or articles: the coxae, a single trochanter, the femur, a short patella, the tibia, and the tarsus. In spiders the coxae frequently have extensions called maxillae or gnathobases, which function as mouth parts with or without some contribution from the coxae of the anterior legs
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Chela (organ)
A chela /kˈiːlə/, also named claw, nipper, or pincer, is a pincer-like organ terminating certain limbs of some arthropods.[1] The name comes from Greek (χηλή) through New Latin (chela). The plural form is chelae.[2] Legs bearing a chela are called chelipeds.[3] Another name is claw because most chelae are curved and have a sharp point like a claw. See also[edit]Pincer (biology)References[edit]^ Dean Pentcheff. "Chela". Crustacea glossary. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. Retrieved November 28, 2011.  ^ George Gordh, Gordon Gordh & David Headrick (2003). A Dictionary of Entomology. CAB International. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-85199-655-4.  ^ Dean Pentcheff. "Cheliped". Crustacea glossary. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. Retrieved November 28, 2011. This Arthropod
Arthropod
anatomy-related article is a stub
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