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Prytaneis
The Prytaneis (πρυτάνεις; sing.: πρύτανις prytanis) were the executives of the boule of ancient Athens.Contents1 Origins and organization 2 Duties 3 In other cities 4 References 5 SourcesOrigins and organization[edit] The term (like basileus or tyrannos) is probably of Pre-Greek etymology[1] (possibly cognate to Etruscan (e)pruni). When Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
reorganized the Athenian government in 508/7 BCE, he replaced the old Solonian boule, or council, of 400 with a new boule of 500. The old boule consisted of 100 members of each of the four ancestral tribes. Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
created ten new tribes and made the boule consist of 50 men from each of these tribes. Each tribe's delegation would be an executive of the boule for one-tenth of the year, so that ten groups of prytaneis served each year, a position granted by sortition
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Prytanis (king Of Sparta)
Prytanis (Greek: Πρύτανις; reigned from c. 860 to c. 830 BC) was king of Sparta and a member of the Eurypontid dynasty
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Ecclesia (ancient Athens)
The ecclesia or ekklesia (Greek: ἐκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens. It was the popular assembly, open to all male citizens as soon as they qualified for citizenship.[1] In 594 BCE, Solon
Solon
allowed all Athenian citizens to participate, regardless of class, even the thetes. The assembly was responsible for declaring war, military strategy and electing the strategoi and other officials. It was responsible for nominating and electing magistrates, thus indirectly electing the members of the Areopagus. It had the final say on legislation and the right to call magistrates to account after their year of office. A typical meeting of the Assembly probably contained around 6000 people, out of a total citizen population of 30 000–60 000. It would have been difficult, however, for non-wealthy people outside the urban center of Athens to attend until payments for attendance were introduced in 390s
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Brill Publishers
Brill (Euronext: BRILL) (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands. With offices in Leiden, Boston, Paderborn
Paderborn
and Singapore, Brill today publishes 275 journals and around 1200 new books and reference works each year. In addition, Brill is a provider of primary source materials online and on microform for researchers in the humanities and social sciences.Contents1 Areas of publication 2 History2.1 Luchtmans, 1683–1848 2.2 E. J
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Robert Beekes
Robert Stephen Paul Beekes (Dutch: [ˈbeːkəs]; 2 September 1937 – 21 September 2017)[1] was Emeritus Professor of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University
Leiden University
and the author of many monographs on the Proto-Indo-European language.Contents1 Scholarly work 2 Publications (selection)2.1 Monographs 2.2 Edited volumes 2.3 Articles3 ReferencesScholarly work[edit] One of his most well-known books is Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, a standard handbook on Proto-Indo-European that treats the area of linguistic reconstruction thoroughly but also features cultural reconstruction and comparative linguistic methods in general. Beekes was also a co-author, with L. Bouke van der Meer, of De Etrusken spreken (1991)
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Asia Minor
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Alexandria
Alexandria
Alexandria
(/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə/ or /-ˈzɑːnd-/;[3] Arabic: الإسكندرية al-ʾIskandariyya; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية Eskendria; Coptic: Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ, Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ Alexandria, Rakotə) is the second-largest city in Egypt
Egypt
and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta
Nile delta
makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria
Alexandria
is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria
Alexandria
is also a popular tourist destination. Alexandria
Alexandria
was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great
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Rhodes
Rhodes
Rhodes
(Greek: Ρόδος, Ródos [ˈroðos]) is the largest of the Dodecanese
Dodecanese
islands of Greece
Greece
in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Rhodes
Rhodes
regional unit, which is part of the South Aegean
South Aegean
administrative region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Rhodes.[1] The city of Rhodes had 50,636 inhabitants in 2011
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Athens
Athens
Athens
(/ˈæθɪnz/;[3] Greek: Αθήνα, Athína [aˈθina], Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯]) is the capital and largest city of Greece
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Attic Calendar
The Attic calendar or Athenian calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis. It is sometimes called the Greek calendar because of Athens's cultural importance, but it is only one of many ancient Greek calendars. Although relatively abundant, the evidence for the Attic calendar is still patchy and often contested. As it was well known in Athens and of little use outside Attica, no contemporary source set out to describe the system as a whole. Further, even during the well-sourced 5th and 4th centuries BC, the calendar underwent changes, not all perfectly understood
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Boule (ancient Greece)
In cities of ancient Greece, the boule (Greek: βουλή, boulē; plural βουλαί, boulai) was a council of over 500 citizens (βουλευταί, bouleutai) appointed to run daily affairs of the city. Originally a council of nobles advising a king, boulai evolved according to the constitution of the city: In oligarchies boule positions might have been hereditary, while in democracies members were typically chosen by lot (→ Sortition), and served for one year. Little is known about the workings of many boulai, except in the case of Athens, for which extensive material has survived.Contents1 Athenian boule1.1 Solonian boule 1.2 Reforms of Cleisthenes 1.3 The boule in the democracy of the late 5th-century BC2 Boulai in other Greek states2.1 Kingdom of Macedonia 2.2 Epirus 2.3 Corinth3 References 4 BibliographyAthenian boule[edit] The original council of Athens
Athens
was the Areopagus
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Solon
Solon
Solon
(Greek: Σόλων Sólōn [só.lɔːn]; c. 638 – c. 558 BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet
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Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
(/ˈklaɪsθɪˌniːz/; Greek: Κλεισθένης, Kleisthénēs; also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was an ancient Athenian lawgiver credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing in 508/7 BC.[1][2] For these accomplishments, historians refer to him as "the father of Athenian democracy."[3] He was a member of the aristocratic Alcmaeonid clan, and the maternal grandson of the tyrant Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
of Sicyon, as the younger son of the latter's daughter Agariste and her husband Megacles. He was also credited with increasing the power of the Athenian citizens’ assembly and for reducing the power of the nobility over Athenian politics.[4] In 510 BC, Spartan troops helped the Athenians overthrow their king, the tyrant Hippias, son of Peisistratos. Cleomenes I, king of Sparta, put in place a pro-Spartan oligarchy headed by Isagoras
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Etruscan Language
The Etruscan language
Etruscan language
(/ɪˈtrʌskən/)[3] was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria
Etruria
(modern Tuscany
Tuscany
plus western Umbria
Umbria
and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy
Lombardy
and Emilia-Romagna. Etruscan influenced Latin, but was eventually completely superseded by it
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