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Protostates
A protostates (Greek: πρωτοστάτης, "the one who stands first/in front"),[1] in Ancient Greece, was the man in front of an epistates (the one who stands behind). The Greek phalanx was made up of alternate ranks of protostates and epistates. Thus, in a file of eight men, the protostates were the men in positions 1,3,5 and 7, while the epistates occupied positions 2,4,6 and 8.[2] The term remained in use into the Byzantine Empire. The foremost protostates of a file (lochos) was called a lochagos (λοχαγός). References[edit]^ gr:πρωτοστάτης. Greek Word Study Tool. Retrieved 2017-08-27.  ^ Asclepiodotus, Tactica, 2.3This Ancient Greece related article is a stub
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Greece
was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era.[1] Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse
Late Bronze Age collapse
of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC
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Phalanx Formation
The phalanx (Ancient Greek: φάλαγξ; plural phalanxes or phalanges, φάλαγγες, phalanges) was a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons. The term is particularly (and originally) used to describe the use of this formation in Ancient Greek warfare, although the ancient Greek writers used it to also describe any massed infantry formation, regardless of its equipment, as does Arrian
Arrian
in his Array against the Alans when he refers to his legions. In Greek texts, the phalanx may be deployed for battle, on the march, even camped, thus describing the mass of infantry or cavalry that would deploy in line during battle
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Asclepiodotus (philosopher)
Asclepiodotus Tacticus (Greek: Ἀσκληπιόδοτος; fl. 1st century BC) was a Greek writer and philosopher, and a pupil of Posidonius.[1] According to Seneca, he wrote a work entitled Quaestionum Naturalium Causae.[1] A short work on military tactics survives. He is one of the earliest military writers whose studies on tactics have come down to us. He was not striped[clarification needed] in the Helian[clarification needed] nor Arrian's lists of tacticians. Notes[edit]^ a b Seneca, Naturales Quaestiones, vi
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Proto-state
A proto-state, also known as a quasi-state,[1] is a political entity which does not represent a fully institutionalized or autonomous sovereign state.[2] The precise definition of "proto-state" in political literature fluctuates depending on the context in which it is used
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Epistates
An epistates (Greek: ἐπιστάτης) in ancient Greece was any sort of superintendent or overseer. In the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
kingdoms generally, an epistates is always connected with a subject district (a regional assembly), where the epistates, as resident representative of the king, exercised control and collected taxes. Military use[edit] In military texts, an epistates (the one who stands behind) is the man behind a protostates (the one who stands first). The phalanx was made up of alternate ranks of protostates and epistates. Thus, in a file of 8 men, the protostates were the men in positions 1,3,5, and 7, while the epistates occupied positions 2,4,6, and 8.[1][2] New Testament usage[edit] The word epistates is also used in "common" Koine Greek
Koine Greek
and in the Greek New Testament to refer to Christ. This word is translated into English as 'master,' but that is a simplistic translation
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Lochos
A lochos, plural lochoi (Greek: λόχος lokhos, pl. λόχοι lokhoi), is a tactical sub unit of Classical Greece
Classical Greece
and of the modern Greek army. The term derived from the ancient Greek for ambush and the men carrying out the ambush, but in practice, its meaning was essentially that of "war-band", a body of armed men. This translation has been used traditionally, e.g. for the Sacred Band of Thebes.Contents1 Size and organisation1.1 Lochos as file 1.2 Spartan lochos2 Byzantine use 3 Modern use 4 See also 5 ReferencesSize and organisation[edit] Evolving as it did with ancient Greek warfare from that of tribal Greece to that of the Greek city-states, the lochos varied in size and organisation over time and from city state to city state, ranging in size from a single file to about 640 men
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Lochagos
Lochagos (Greek: Λοχαγός; abbreviated as Λγος) is used in the Greek language
Greek language
to mean "Captain". More precisely, it means "leader of a lochos".Contents1 Ancient Use 2 Modern Use2.1 Rank insignia3 ReferencesAncient Use[edit] The term has been used since the times of Ancient Greece, where the place of the rank in the military hierarchy differed from city-state to city-state. For example, Xenophon
Xenophon
reported that a lochagos of Sparta
Sparta
served under a polemarch. Aristotle
Aristotle
reported that his counterpart in Athens
Athens
served under a taxiarchos
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Protostates
A protostates (Greek: πρωτοστάτης, "the one who stands first/in front"),[1] in Ancient Greece, was the man in front of an epistates (the one who stands behind). The Greek phalanx was made up of alternate ranks of protostates and epistates. Thus, in a file of eight men, the protostates were the men in positions 1,3,5 and 7, while the epistates occupied positions 2,4,6 and 8.[2] The term remained in use into the Byzantine Empire. The foremost protostates of a file (lochos) was called a lochagos (λοχαγός). References[edit]^ gr:πρωτοστάτης. Greek Word Study Tool. Retrieved 2017-08-27.  ^ Asclepiodotus, Tactica, 2.3This Ancient Greece related article is a stub
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