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Proto-Indo-European Accent
Proto-Indo-European accent refers to the accentual system of Proto-Indo-European language.Contents1 Description 2 Reflexes 3 Unaccented words 4 Interpretation 5 Modern theories 6 See also 7 Notes 8 ReferencesDescription[edit] Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is usually reconstructed as having had variable lexical stress: the placement of the stress in a word (the accent) was not predictable by its phonological rules. Stressed syllables received a higher pitch than unstressed ones so PIE is often said to have had pitch accent. (That must not be confused with the other meaning of the term "pitch accent", which refers to a system of one or two syllables per word having one of at least two unpredictable tones, and the tones of any other syllables being predictable.) PIE accent could be mobile so it could change place throughout the inflectional paradigm
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Vladimir Dybo
Vladimir Antonovich Dybo (Russian: Влади́мир Анто́нович Дыбо́; born 30 April 1931) is a Russian linguist whose areas of research include the Slavic languages, Indo-European, Nostratic, and Nilo-Saharan. Dybo is known for his reconstruction of Balto-Slavic accentuation, the first ever attempted. He has subscribed to the Nostratic
Nostratic
hypothesis and established the Illich-Svitych Nostratic
Nostratic
Seminar in Moscow. Dybo is the head of the Department of Slavic Languages in the Faculty of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics at the Russian State University for the Humanities, as well as a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. His daughter Anna V
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Ancient Greek Accent
Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
had a pitch accent. One of the final three syllables of an Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word carried an accent. Each syllable contains a vowel with one or two vocalic morae, and one mora in a word was accented; the accented mora was pronounced at a higher pitch than other morae. Two-mora syllables could have rising or falling pitch patterns or normal pitch; one-mora syllables could have high or normal pitch. Rules restricted where an accented mora could appear, but within those restrictions, accent was free: it could appear in different positions in a given word
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Verner's Law
Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner
Karl Verner
in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language
Proto-Germanic language
whereby voiceless fricatives *f, *þ, *s, *h, *hʷ, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became the fricatives *β, *ð, *z, *ɣ, *ɣʷ respectively.[1]Contents1 The problem 2 Solution 3 Significance 4 Dating the change described by Verner's law 5 Newer considerations regarding the dating 6 Areal connections 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reference 10 External linksThe problem[edit] When Grimm's law was discovered, a strange irregularity was spotted in its operation. The Proto-Indo-European (PIE) voiceless stops *p, *t and *k should have – according to Grimm's law – changed into Proto-Germanic (PGmc) *f (bilabial fricative [ɸ]), *þ (dental fricative [θ]) and *h (velar fricative [x])
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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Lithuanian Language
Lithuanian (Lithuanian: lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language
Baltic language
spoken in the Baltic region. It is the language of Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and the official language of Lithuania
Lithuania
as well as one of the official languages of the European Union. There are about 2.9 million[3] native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania
Lithuania
and about 200,000 abroad. As a Baltic language, Lithuanian is closely related to neighboring Latvian and more distantly to Slavic and other Indo-European languages. It is written in a Latin
Latin
alphabet
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Latvian Language
Latvian (latviešu valoda [ˈlatviɛʃu ˈvaluɔda])[tones?] is a Baltic language
Baltic language
spoken in the Baltic region. It is the language of Latvians
Latvians
and the official language of Latvia
Latvia
as well as one of the official languages of the European Union. It was previously known in English as Lettish, and cognates of the word remain the most commonly used name for the Latvian language
Latvian language
in Germanic languages
Germanic languages
other than English. There are about 1.3 million native Latvian speakers in Latvia and 100,000 abroad
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South Slavic Languages
The South Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are one of three branches of the Slavic languages. There are approximately 30 million speakers, mainly in the Balkans. These are separated geographically from speakers of the other two Slavic branches (West and East) by a belt of German, Hungarian and Romanian speakers. The first South Slavic language to be written (the first attested Slavic language) was the variety spoken in Thessaloniki, now called Old Church Slavonic, in the ninth century
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Clitics
A clitic (/ˈklɪtɪk/ from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase. In this sense, it is syntactically independent but phonologically dependent, always attached to a host.[1] The term is derived from the Greek for "leaning".[2] A clitic is pronounced like an affix, but plays a syntactic role at the phrase level. In other words, clitics have the form of affixes, but the distribution of function words. For example, the contracted forms of the auxiliary verbs in I'm and we've are clitics. Clitics can belong to any grammatical category, although they are commonly pronouns, determiners, or adpositions
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Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Germanic developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three branches during the first half of the first millennium of the Common Era: West Germanic, East Germanic
East Germanic
and North Germanic, which however remained in contact over a considerable time, especially the Ingvaeonic languages (including English), which arose from West Germanic dialects and remained in continued contact with North Germanic. A defining feature of Proto-Germanic is the completion of Grimm's law, a set of sound changes that occurred between its status as a dialect of Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
and its gradual divergence into a separate language
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Proto-Indo-European Verb
A verb, from the Latin
Latin
verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice. A verb may also agree with the person, gender or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Nominal (linguistics)
In linguistics, the term nominal refers to a category used to group together nouns and adjectives based on shared properties. The motivation for nominal grouping is that in many languages nouns and adjectives share a number of morphological and syntactic properties. The systems used in such languages to show agreement can be classified broadly as gender systems, noun class systems or case marking, classifier systems, and mixed systems.[1] Typically an affix related to the noun appears attached to the other parts of speech within a sentence to create agreement. Such morphological agreement usually occurs in parts within the noun phrase, such as determiners and adjectives
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Vladislav Illich-Svitych
Vladislav Markovich Illich-Svitych (Russian: Владисла́в Ма́ркович И́ллич-Сви́тыч, also transliterated as Illič-Svityč; September 12, 1934 – August 22, 1966) was a linguist and accentologist, also a founding father of comparative Nostratic linguistics.Contents1 Biography 2 Selected publications 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Of Polish[citation needed]-Jewish descent, Illich-Svitych was born in Kiev
Kiev
but in 1941 moved with his parents to Chkalov and later to Moscow. His father, Mark Vladislavovich Illich-Svitych (1886—1963), worked as a bookkeeper; mother, Klara Moiseevna Desner (1901—1955) was chief director of puppet theater in Orenburg.[1] He resuscitated the long-forgotten Nostratic
Nostratic
hypothesis, originally expounded by Holger Pedersen in 1903, and coined the modern term Nostratics
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Matica Hrvatska
Matica
Matica
hrvatska (Latin: Matrix Croatica) is the oldest independent, non-profit and non-governmental Croatian national institution. It was founded on February 2, 1842 by the Croatian Count Janko Drašković and other prominent members of the Illyrian movement
Illyrian movement
during the Croatian National Revival (1835-1874)
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