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Propynal
Propynal is an organic compound with molecular formula HC2CHO. It is the simplest chemical compound containing both alkyne and aldehyde functional groups. It is a colorless liquid with explosive properties.[1] The compound exhibits reactions expected for an electrophilic alkynyl aldehyde. It is a dienophile and a good Michael acceptor. Grignard reagents add to the carbonyl center.[1]Contents1 Occurrence in interstellar medium 2 Hazards 3 See also 4 ReferencesOccurrence in interstellar medium[edit] Propynal has been observed in the interstellar medium. It is hypothesized to be formed from a carbon monoxide-acetylene complex.[2] Another possible pathway is through the reaction of propynylidyne (C3H) with water.[3] Hazards[edit] The compound is explosive, possibly because it tends to polymerize.[1] See also[edit]acrolein propiolic acidReferences[edit]^ a b c P
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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Functional Group
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups (moieties) of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of.[1][2] This allows for systematic prediction of chemical reactions and behavior of chemical compounds and design of chemical syntheses. Furthermore, the reactivity of a functional group can be modified by other functional groups nearby. In organic synthesis, functional group interconversion is one of the basic types of transformations. The atoms of functional groups are linked to each other and to the rest of the molecule by covalent bonds. Functional groups can also be charged, e.g. in carboxylate salts (–COO−), which turns the molecule into a polyatomic ion or a complex ion
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Carbon Monophosphide
Carbon monophosphide (CP) is a chemical with a molecular weight of 42.984. CP is the pnictogenic cousin of the chalcogenic species CS. Aside from differences in the masses of the heavy atoms in each diatomic, CP and CN are both open-shell species with doublet Π ground electronic states while the ground states of CS and CO are closed-shell. The simple diatomic radical carbon monophosphide (CP) was detected in the circumstellar envelope of the star IRC +10216
IRC +10216
in 1990.[1] The identification was made by matching 10 rotational lines observed with the IRAM 30m radiotelescope.[2][3] References[edit]^ "Free CP in IRC + 10216". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 230: L9
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Argonium
Argonium, an ion combining a proton and an argon atom (and so also called protonated argon), (ArH+) can be made in an electric discharge, and was the first noble gas molecular ion to be found in interstellar space.[1]Contents1 Properties 2 Reactions 3 Spectrum 4 Natural occurrence 5 History 6 Use 7 Other things 8 ReferencesProperties[edit] Argonium
Argonium
is isoelectronic with hydrogen chloride. Its dipole moment is 2.18 D for the ground state.[2] The binding energy is 369 kJ mol−1[3] (2.9 eV[4]). This is smaller than that of H+ 3 and many other protonated species, but less than H+ 2.[3] Lifetimes of different vibrational states vary with isotope and become shorter for the more rapid high-energy vibrations
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Aluminium(II) Oxide
An oxide /ˈɒksaɪd/ is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element[1] in its chemical formula. "Oxide" itself is the dianion of oxygen, an O2– atom. Metal
Metal
oxides thus typically contain an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of −2. Most of the Earth's crust
Earth's crust
consists of solid oxides, the result of elements being oxidized by the oxygen in air or in water. Hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon
combustion affords the two principal carbon oxides: carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Even materials considered pure elements often develop an oxide coating
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Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.[7][note 1] Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons. The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds
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JSmol
Jmol
Jmol
is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions.[2] Jmol
Jmol
returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool,[3] or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry. It is written in the programming language Java, so it can run on the operating systems Windows, macOS, Linux, and Unix, if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License
GNU Lesser General Public License
(LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna. A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Propiolic Acid
Propiolic acid is the organic compound with the formula HC2CO2H. It is the simplest acetylenic carboxylic acid. It is a colourless liquid that crystallises to give silky crystals. Near its boiling point, it decomposes. It is soluble in water and possesses an odor like that of acetic acid.[2]Contents1 Preparation 2 Reactions and applications 3 Propiolates 4 See also 5 ReferencesPreparation[edit] It is prepared commercially by oxidizing propargyl alcohol at a lead electrode.[3] It can also be prepared by decarboxylation of acetylenedicarboxylic acid. Reactions and applications[edit] Exposure to sunlight converts it into trimesic acid (benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid). It undergoes bromination to give dibromoacrylic acid. With hydrogen chloride it forms chloroacrylic acid. Its ethyl ester condenses with hydrazine to form pyrazolone. It forms a characteristic explosive solid upon treatment to its aqueous solution with ammoniacal silver nitrate
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Nitrogen
Nitrogen
Nitrogen
is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates
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Michael Acceptor
The Michael reaction
Michael reaction
or Michael addition is the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another nucleophile[1][2] to an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound. It belongs to the larger class of conjugate additions. This is one of the most useful methods for the mild formation of C–C bonds.[3] Many asymmetric variants exist.[4][5]In this scheme the R and R' substituents on the nucleophile (a Michael donor) are electron-withdrawing groups such as acyl and cyano making the methylene hydrogen acidic forming the carbanion on reaction with base B:
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Explosive
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure. An explosive charge is a measured quantity of explosive material, which may be composed of a single ingredient or a combination of two or more. The potential energy stored in an explosive material may, for example, bechemical energy, such as nitroglycerin or grain dust pressurized gas, such as a gas cylinder or aerosol can nuclear energy, such as in the fissile isotopes uranium-235 and plutonium-239 Explosive
Explosive
materials may be categorized by the speed at which they expand. Materials that detonate (the front of the chemical reaction moves faster through the material than the speed of sound) are said to be "high explosives" and materials that deflagrate are said to be "low explosives"
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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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Aldehyde
An aldehyde /ˈældɪhaɪd/ or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group,[1] which is any generic alkyl or side chain. The group—without R—is the aldehyde group, also known as the formyl group. Aldehydes are common in organic chemistry
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Melting Point
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium. The melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point. Because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the freezing point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance
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