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Prophets in Islam ( ar|الأنبياء في الإسلام|translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals to serve as examples of ideal human behavior and to spread God's message on Earth. Some prophets are categorized as messengers ( ar|رسول|rusul, sing. , ), those who transmit divine revelation, most of them through the interaction of an angel. Muslims believe that many prophets existed, including many not mentioned in the Quran. The Quran states: "There is a Messenger for every community". Belief in the Islamic prophets is one of the six articles of the Islamic faith. Muslims believe that the first prophet was also the first human being, Adam, created by Allah. Many of the revelations delivered by the 48 prophets in Judaism and many prophets of Christianity are mentioned as such in the Quran but usually in slightly different forms. For example, the Jewish Elisha is called Alyasa', Job is Ayyub, Jesus is 'Isa, etc. The Torah given to Moses (Musa) is called ''Tawrat'', the Psalms given to David (Dawud) is the ''Zabur'', the Gospel given to Jesus is ''Injil''. The final prophet in Islam is Muhammad ibn ʿAbdullāh, whom Muslims believe to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (''Khatam an-Nabiyyin''), to whom the Quran was revealed in a series of revelations (and written down by his companions). Muslims believe the Quran is the sole divine and literal word of God, thus immutable and protected from distortion and corruption, destined to remain in its true form until the Last Day. Although Muhammad is considered the last prophet, some Muslim traditions also recognize and venerate saints (though modern schools, such as Salafism and Wahhabism, reject the theory of sainthood). In Islam, every prophet preached the same core beliefs, the Oneness of God, worshipping of that one God, avoidance of idolatry and sin, and the belief in the Day of Resurrection or the Day of Judgement and life after death. Prophets and messengers are believed to have been sent by God to different communities during different periods in history. According to Al-Qadi al-Nu'man Qadi al-Nu'man, a famous Muslim jurist of the Fatimid period, the prophets of God are referred to as His ‘words’ because they convey God’s message to mankind, by His permission. The “Word of God” does not refer to the words that are used by human beings to communicate, as that would result in drawing parallels between God and His creation, which is forbidden in Islam (''kufr''), as God is exalted above these things. In Islam there is a tradition of prophetic lineage, particularly with regard to the prophet Abraham (Ibrahim) who had many prophets in his lineage - Jesus ('Isa), Zakariyyah (Zechariah), Muhammad, David (Dawud), etc. - through his sons Ismael and Isaac.


Etymology


In Arabic and Hebrew, the term ''nabī'' (Arabic plural form: , ) means "prophet". Forms of this noun occur 75 times in the Quran. The term ''nubuwwah'' ( "prophethood") occurs five times in the Quran. The terms ''rasūl'' (Arabic plural: , ) and ''mursal'' (Arabic: , , pl: , ) denote "messenger with law given by/received from God" and occur more than 300 times. The term for a prophetic "message" (Arabic: , , pl: , ) appears in the Quran in ten instances.Uri Rubin, "Prophets and Prophethood", ''Encyclopedia of the Qur'an'' The Syriac form of ''rasūl Allāh'' (literally: "messenger of God"), ''s̲h̲eliḥeh d-allāhā'', occurs frequently in the apocryphal ''Acts of St. Thomas''. The corresponding verb for ''s̲h̲eliḥeh''—''s̲h̲alaḥ'', occurs in connection with the prophets in the Hebrew Bible.A. J. Wensinck, "Rasul", ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'' The words "prophet" () and "messenger" () appear several times in the Old Testament and the New Testament. The following table shows these words in different languages: In the Hebrew Bible, the word ''nabi'' ("spokesperson, prophet") occurs commonly. The biblical word for "messenger", ''mal'akh'', refers today to Angels in Judaism, but originally was used for human messenger both of God and of men, thus it is only somewhat equivalent of ''rasūl''. According to Judaism, Haggai, Zaqariah, and Malachi were the last prophets, all of whom lived at the end of the 70-year Babylonian exile. With them, the authentic period of ''Nevuah'' ("prophecy") died, and nowadays only the "Bath Kol" (בת קול, lit. ''daughter of a voice'', "voice of God") exists (Sanhedrin 11a). In the New Testament, however, the word "messenger" becomes more frequent, sometimes in association with the concept of a prophet. "Messenger" may refer to Jesus, to his Apostles and to John the Baptist. But the last book of the Old Testament, the Book of Malachi, speaks of a messenger that Christian commentators interpret as a reference to the future prophet John the Baptist (Yahya).


Characteristics


The Quran is a revelation from the last prophet in the Abrahamic succession, Muhammad, and its contents detail what Muslims refer to as the straight path. According to Islamic belief, every prophet preached submission and obedience to God (Islam). There is an emphasis on charity, prayer, pilgrimage, fasting, with the most emphasis given to the strict belief and worship of a singular God. The Quran itself calls Islam the "religion of Abraham" (Ibrahim) and refers to Jacob (Yaqub) and the Twelve Tribes of Israel as being Muslims. The Quran says: Prophets in Islam are exemplars to ordinary humans. They exhibit model characteristics of righteousness and moral conduct. Prophetic typologies shared by all prophets include prophetic lineage, advocating monotheism, transmitting God's messages, and warning of the eschatological consequences of rejecting God. Prophetic revelation often comes in the form of signs and divine proofs. Each prophet is connected to one another, and ultimately support the final prophetic message of Muhammad. The qualities prophets possess are meant to lead people towards the straight path. In one hadith, it was stated: "Among men the prophets suffer most."


Protection from sin and failure


Classical Islamic teaching, especially Shi'ism, teach that unlike other human beings, prophets have the quality of ''ʿiṣmah'', i.e. are protected by God from making mistakes or committing grave sins.Brown, ''Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought'', 1996: p.60 This does not mean, they do not err, rather that they always seek to correct their mistakes. It is argued that sin are necessary for prophets, so they can show the people how to repent. Jasser Auda mentioned instances of the Quran correcting Muhammad on certain matters, in Quran 8:67; Q9:43; and 80:1-3). Some doubt whether there is Quranic basis for ''ʿiṣmah'', (Jasser Auda mentioned instances of the Quran correcting Muhammad on certain matters, in Quran 8:67; 9:43; and 80:1-3). but since in Islam (and Abrahamic faiths in general) divine revelation (the Quran and Sunnah) is transmitted by human beings—normally subject to error, weakness, frailty—the doctrine of ''ʿiṣmah'' prevents this problem, and became "mainstream Sunni doctrine" by the ninth century CE.Brown, ''Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought'', 1996: p.61 Scholars are not in agreement on whether prophets are subject to error in judgments outside their divine mission. The Quran speaks of the prophets as being the greatest human beings of all time.Wheeler, ''Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism'', "Prophets" Quran 4:69 lists various virtuous groups of human beings, among whom prophets (including messengers) occupy the highest rank. Verse 4:69 reads: Stories of the prophets in the Quran (e.g., Job, Moses, Joseph (Yusuf) etc.) demonstrate that it is "God's practice" (''sunnat Allah'') to make faith triumph finally over the forces of evil and adversity. "We have made the evil ones friends to those without faith." "Assuredly God will defend those who believe." The prophets are divinely inspired by God but "share no divine attributes", and possess "no knowledge or power" other than that granted to them by God. Prophets are considered to be chosen by God for the specific task of teaching the faith of Islam. ;Age Some were called to prophesy late in life, in Muhammad's case at the age of 40. Others, such as John the Baptist, were called to prophesy while still at a young age. Jesus prophesied while still in his cradle.


Female prophets


There are authors who mention the possibility of female prophets in Islam. However, the Quran, says, in 12:109, to Muhammad , regarding prophets, "We have only sent men prior to you." It also mentions that Muhammad, a man, is the last of the prophets in 33:40.


Prophetic Lineage


Several prominent exponents of the Fatimid Ismaili Imams explained that throughout history there have been six enunciators (''natiqs'') who brought the exoteric (''zahir'') revelation to humans, namely: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. They speak of a seventh enunciator (''natiq''), the Resurrector (Qa’im), who will unveil the esoteric (''batin'') meaning of all the previous revelations. He is believed to be the pinnacle and purpose of creation. The enunciators (sing. ''natiq'') who are the Prophets and the Imams in their respective times, are the highest hierarch (''hadd''). The enunciators (''natiqs'') signal the beginning of a new age (''dawr'') in humankind, whereas the Imams unveil and present the esoteric (''batin'') meaning of the revelation to the people. These individuals are both known as the ‘Lord of the Age’ (''sahib al-’asr'') or the ‘Lord of the Time’ (''sahib al-zaman''). Through them, one can know God, and their invitation to humans to recognize God is called the invitation (''da’wa''). Abraham is widely recognized for being the father of monotheism in the Abrahamic religions, however, in the Quran he is recognized as a messenger and a link in the chain of Muslim prophets. Muhammad, Allah's final messenger and the revelator of the Quran, is a descendant of Abraham. In the Quran it reads, "He llahsaid: 'I am making you brahama spiritual exemplar to mankind.'" (Q. 2:124) This phrase is affirming Islam as an Abrahamic religion, and further promoting Abraham as an important figure in the history of the Quran. This confirmation of the prophetic relationship (between Abraham and Muhammad) is significant to Abraham's story in the Quran – due to the fact that the last messenger, Muhammad, completes Abraham's prophetic lineage. This relationship can be seen in the Quranic chapter 6: "That is Our Argument which We imparted to Abraham against his people. We raise up in degrees whomever We please. Your Lord is indeed Wise, All-Knowing. And We granted him Isaac and Jacob, and guided each of them; and Noah We guided before that, and of his progeny, e guidedDavid, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses and Aaron. Thus We reward the beneficent. And Zechariah, John, Jesus and Elias, each was one of the righteous. And Ishmael, Elijah, Jonah and Lot; each We exalted above the whole world. e also exalted someof their fathers, progeny and brethren. And We chose them and guided them to a straight path." (Q. 6:83-87) These particular verses support the Quranic narrative for Abraham to be recognized as a patriarch and is supported by his prophetic lineage concluding with Muhammad. The Quran presents the world of Abraham as interlocking dramas or conflicts. The divine drama concerns the events of creation and banishment from the garden; while the human drama concerns the life and history of humanity but, also inclusive of the ever-changing events in of individual lives and those of the Prophets. This is the situation that calls the faith of the Prophets to follow and reclaim the message of the Straight path and this is characterization of the conflicts between the two dramas. The Islamic morality is founded on this virtuous living through faith in the life ordained by the divine. This is the Divine task given to believers accompanied by the divine gift that the Prophets had in revelation and perspective of ayat. This the key feature to the authority of their revelation because not only is the source of revelation is Allah but it produces texts that are seen as distinctive than other poetry but it fits within the Abrahamic tradition. Poetry especially, in the Arabian context, connects the Quran to Pre-Islamic poetry which originates from the jihn; however, the Quran's place within other religious contexts gives the revelation to Mohammad the same authority of the Hebrew texts and the New Testament.


Monotheism


The Quran states,
"And (remember) Abraham, when he said to his people: 'Worship Allah and fear Him; that is far better for you, if only you knew. Indeed, you only worship, apart from Allah, mere idols, and you invent falsehood. Surely, those you worship, apart from Allah, have no power to provide for you. So, seek provision from Allah, worship Him and give Him thanks. You shall be returned unto Him.'" (Q. 29:16-17)
This passage promotes Abraham's devotion to Allah as one of His messengers along with his monotheism. Islam is a monotheistic religion, and Abraham is one who is recognized for this transformation of the religious tradition. This prophetic aspect of monotheism is mentioned several times in the Quran. Abraham believed in one true God, Allah, and promoted an "invisible oneness" (''tawḥīd'') with Him. The Quran proclaims, "Say: 'My lord has guided me to a Straight Path, a right religion, the creed of Abraham, an upright man who was no polytheist.'" (Q. 6:161) One push Abraham had to devote himself to Allah and monotheism is from the Pagans of his time. Abraham was devoted to cleansing the Arabian Peninsula of this impetuous worship. His father was a wood idol sculptor, and Abraham was critical of his trade. Due to Abraham's devotion, he is recognized as the father of monotheism.


Eschatology


Prophets and messengers in Islam often fall under the typologies of ''nadhir'' ("warner") and ''bashir'' ("announcer of good tidings"). Many prophets serve as vessels to inform humanity of the eschatological consequences of not accepting Allah's message and affirming monotheism. A verse from the Quran reads: "Verily, We have sent thee uhammadwith the truth, as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner: and thou shalt not be held accountable for those who are destined for the blazing fire." (Q2:119) The prophetic revelations found in the Quran offer vivid descriptions of the flames of Hell that await nonbelievers but also describe the rewards of the gardens of Paradise that await the true believers. The warnings and promises transmitted by Allah through the prophets to their communities serve to legitimize Muhammed's message. The final revelation that is presented to Muhammed is particularly grounded in the belief that the Day of Judgement is imminent.


Signs and Divine Proofs


Throughout the Quran, prophets such as Moses and Jesus often perform miracles or are associated with miraculous events. The Quran makes clear that these events always occur through Allah and not of the prophet's own volition. Throughout the Meccan passages there are instances where the Meccan people demand visual proofs of Muhammad's divine connection to Allah to which Muhammad replies "The signs are only with Allah, and I am only a plain warner." (Q29:50) This instance makes clear that prophets are only mortals who can testify to Allah's omnipotence and produce signs when He wills it. Furthermore, the Quran states that visual and verbal proofs are often rejected by the unbelievers as being ''sihr'' ("magic") The Quran reads: "They claim that he tries to bewitch them and make them believe that he speaks the word of God, although he is just an ordinary human being like themselves. (Q74:24-25)


Representation and Prophetic Connection to Muhammad


There are patterns of representation of Quranic prophecy that support the revelation of Muhammad. Since Muhammad is in Abraham's prophetic lineage, they are analogous in many aspects of their prophecy. Muhammad was trying to rid the Pagans of idolatry during his lifetime, which is similar to Abraham. This caused many to reject Muhammad’s message and even made him flee from Mecca due to his unsafety in the city. Carl Ernest, the author of How to Read the Qur’an: A New Guide, with Select Translations, states, "The Qur’an frequently consoles Muhammad and defends him against his opponents." This consolation can also be seen as parallel to Abraham's encouragement from Allah. Muhammad is also known to perform miracles as Abraham did. Sura 17 (''al-isrā'') briefly describes Muhammad's miraculous Night Journey where he physically ascended to the Heavens to meet with previous prophets. This spiritual journey is significant in the sense that many Islamic religious traditions and transformations were given and established during this miracle, such as the ritual of daily prayer. (Q17:78-84) Muhammad is a descendant of Abraham; therefore, this not only makes him part of the prophetic lineage, but the final prophet in the Abrahamic lineage to guide humanity to the Straight Path. In Sura 33 (''al-ahzāb'') it confirms Muhammad and states, "Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but is the Messenger of Allah and the seal of the Prophets. Allah is Cognizant of everything". (Q33:40)


Obedience


The Quran emphasizes the importance of obedience to prophets in Surah 26 Ash-Shu'ara, in which a series of prophets preaching fear of God and obedience to themselves. *verse 108 has Noah saying 'fear God and Obey me' *verse 126 has Hud saying 'fear God and obey me' *verse 144 has Saleh saying 'fear God and obey me' *verse 163 has Lot saying 'fear God and obey me' *verse 179 has Shu'ayb saying 'fear God and obey me'


Scriptures and other gifts





Holy books


The revealed books are the records which Muslims believe were dictated by God to various Islamic prophets throughout the history of mankind, all these books promulgated the code and laws of Islam. The belief in all the revealed books is an article of faith in Islam and Muslims must believe in all the scriptures to be a Muslim. Muslims believe the Quran, the final holy scripture, was sent because all the previous holy books had been either corrupted or lost. Nonetheless, Islam speaks of respecting all the previous scriptures, even in their current forms. The Quran mentions some Islamic scriptures by name, which came before the Quran: *''Tawrat'' (Torah): According to the Quran, the Tawrat (Torah) was revealed to Moses, but Muslims believe that the current Pentateuch, although it retains the main message, has suffered corruption over the years. Moses and his brother Haroon (Aaron) used the Torah to preach the message to the Children of Israel. The Quran implies that the Torah is the longest-used scripture, with the Jewish people still using the Torah today, and that all the Hebrew prophets would warn the people of any corruptions that were in the scripture. Jesus, in Muslim belief, was the last prophet to be taught the Mosaic Law in its true form. *''Zabur'' (Psalms): The Quran mentions the Psalms as being the holy scripture revealed to David. Scholars have often understood the Psalms to have been holy songs of praise. The current Psalms are still praised by many Muslim scholars, but Muslims generally assume that some of the current Psalms were written later and are not divinely revealed. * Book of Enlightenment (): The Quran mentions a ''Book of Enlightenment'', which has alternatively been translated as ''Scripture of Enlightenment'' or the ''Illuminating Book''. It mentions that some prophets, in the past, came with clear signs from God as well as this particular scripture. * Books of Divine Wisdom (Arabic: possibly identified as الْزُبُر ''az-Zubur''): The Quran mentions certain ''Books of Divine Wisdom'', translated by some scholars as ''Books of Dark Prophecies'', which are a reference to particular books vouchsafed to some prophets, wherein there was wisdom for man. Some scholars have suggested that these may be one and the same as the Psalms as their root Arabic word, ''Zubur'' (Quran 35:25) - the plural for the word "Scriptures", comes from the same source as the Arabic ''Zabur'' for the Psalms. *''Injil'' (Gospel): The İnjil (Gospel) was the holy book revealed to Jesus, according to the Quran. Although many lay Muslims believe the ''Injil'' refers to the entire New Testament, scholars have clearly pointed out that it refers not to the New Testament but to an original Gospel, which was sent by God, and was given to Jesus. Therefore, according to Muslim belief, the Gospel was the message that Jesus, being divinely inspired, preached to the Children of Israel. The current canonical Gospels, in the belief of Muslim scholars, are not divinely revealed but rather are documents of the life of Jesus, as written by various contemporaries, disciples and companions. These Gospels contain portions of Jesus's teachings but do not represent the original Gospel, which was a single book written not by a human but was sent by God. *Scrolls of Abraham: ( and/or ). The Scrolls of Abraham are believed to have been one of the earliest bodies of scripture, which were vouchsafed to Abraham, and later used by Ishmael and Isaac. Although usually referred to as 'scrolls/ manuscript', many translators have translated the Arabic ''Suhuf'' as 'the Scriptures'. The Scrolls of Abraham are now considered lost rather than corrupted, although some scholars have identified them with the Testament of Abraham, an apocalyptic piece of literature available in Arabic at the time of Muhammad. The verse mentioning the "Scriptures" is in Quran 87:18-19 where they are referred to "Books of the Earliest Revelation". *Scrolls of Moses: ( and/or ). These scrolls, containing the revelations of Moses, which were perhaps written down later by Moses, Aaron and Joshua, are understood by Muslims to refer not to the Torah but to revelations aside from the Torah. Some scholars have stated that they could possibly refer to the Book of the Wars of the Lord, a lost text spoken of in the Hebrew Bible. The verse mentioning the "Scriptures" is in Quran 87:18-19 where they are referred to "Books of the Earliest Revelation".


Holy gifts


Muhammad was given a divine gift of revelation through the angel Gabriel. This direct communication with the divine underlines the human experience but the message of the Quran dignifies this history of revelation with these select people in human history the foundation for Mohammad's prophetic lineage. The Quran mentions various divinely-bestowed gifts given to various prophets. These may be interpreted as books or forms of celestial knowledge. Although all prophets are believed by Muslims to have been immensely gifted, special mention of "wisdom" or "knowledge" for a particular prophet is understood to mean that some secret knowledge was revealed to him. The Quran mentions that Abraham prayed for wisdom and later received it. It also mentions that Joseph and Moses both attained wisdom when they reached full age; David received wisdom with kingship, after slaying Goliath; Lot (Lut received wisdom whilst prophesying in Sodom and Gomorrah; John the Baptist received wisdom while still a mere youth; and Jesus received wisdom and was vouchsafed the Gospel.


The Nature of Revelation


During the time of the prophet Muhammad's revelation, the Arabian peninsula was made up of many pagan tribes. His birthplace, Mecca, was a central pilgrimage site and a trading center where many tribes and religions were in constant contact. Muhammad's connection with the surrounding culture was foundational to the way the Quran was revealed. Though it is seen as the direct word of God, it came through to Muhammed in his own native language of Arabic, which could be understood by all the peoples in the peninsula. This is the key feature of the Quran which makes it unique to the poetry and other religious texts of the time. It is considered immune to translation and culturally applicable to the context of the time it was revealed. Muhammad was criticized for his revelation being poetry which, according to the cultural perspective, is revelation purely originating from the jihn and the Qurash but the typology of duality and its likeness to the other prophets in the Abrahamic line affirms his revelation. This likeness is found in the complexity of its structure and its message of submission of faith to the one God, Allah. This also revels that his revelation comes from Allah alone and he is the preserver of the Straight Path as well as the inspired messages and lives of other prophets, making the Quran cohesive with the monotheistic reality in the Abrahamic traditions.


Known prophets





Prophets and messengers named in the Quran


All messengers mentioned in the Quran are also prophets, but not all prophets are messengers.


Figures whose prophethood is debated


To believe in God's messengers (Rusul) means to be convinced that God sent men as guides to fellow human beings and jinn (khalq) to guide them to the truth.


Prophethood in Ahmadiyya


The Ahmadiyya Community does not believe that messengers and prophets are different individuals. They interpret the Quranic words ''warner'' (''nadhir''), ''prophet'', and ''messenger'' as referring to different roles that the same divinely appointed individuals perform. Ahmadiyya distinguish only between law-bearing prophets and non-law-bearing ones. They believe that although law-bearing prophethood ended with Muhammad, non-law-bearing prophethood subordinate to Muhammad continues. The Ahmadiyya Community recognizes Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908) as such a "prophet" of God and the promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi of the latter days. The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement rejects his status as a prophet, instead considering him to be a renewer of the faith. However, all other Muslims and their scholars argue and firmly establish that the Ahmadiyya community are not Muslim.


Other persons


The Quran mentions 25 prophets by name but also tells that God (Allah) sent many other prophets and messengers, to all the different nations that have existed on Earth. Many verses in the Quran discuss this: * "We did aforetime send messengers before thee: of them there are some whose story We have related to thee, and some whose story We have not related to thee...." * "For We assuredly sent amongst every People a messenger, ..."


In the Quran


* Caleb (Khalab): In the Quran, Caleb is mentioned in the 5th surah of the Quran (Q5:20-26). * Dhul-Qarnayn : Dhul-Qarnayn. * Joachim (Imran): The Family of Imran (Arabic: آل عمران) is the 3rd chapter of the Quran. ''Imran'', not to be confused with Amram, is Arabic for the biblical figure Joachim, the father of Mary and maternal grandfather of Jesus. * Khidr: The Quran also mentions the mysterious Khidr (but does not name him), identified at times with Melchizedek, who is the figure that Moses accompanies on one journey. Although most Muslims regard him as an enigmatic saint or an angel,Jill Caskey, Adam S. Cohen, Linda Safran ''Confronting the Borders of Medieval Art'' BRILL 2011 page 124 some see him as a prophet as well. * Luqman: The Quran mentions the sage Luqman in the chapter named after him, but does not clearly identify him as a prophet. The most widespread Islamic belief''A-Z of Prophets in Islam'', B. M. Wheeler, "Luqman" views Luqman as a saint, but not as a prophet. The Arabic term ''wali'' (Arabic ولي, plural Awliyā' أولياء) is commonly translated into English as "Saint". However, the wali should not be confused with the Christian tradition of sainthood. A key difference is that the wali continues what a prophet taught without any change. However, other Muslims regard Luqman as a prophet as well.''Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam'', Cyril Glasse, "Prophets in Islam" * Mary (Maryam): Some scholars (such as Ibn Hazm) regard Maryam (Mary) as a ''nabi'' and a prophetess, since God sent her a message through an angel and because she was a vessel for divine miracles. Although the Quran does not explicitly identify her as a prophet, scholarship has been devoted to interpreting her as such. Islamic belief regards her as one of the holiest of women, but the matter of her prophethood continues to be debated.''Beyond The Exotic: Women's Histories in Islamic Societies'', p. 402. Ed. Amira El-Azhary Sonbol. Syracuse University Press, 2005. * Three persons of the town: These three unnamed person, who were sent to the same town, are referenced in chapter 36 of the Quran. *Samuel (Syamuil): Not mentioned by name, only referred to as a prophet sent to the Israelites and who anoints Saul as a king. * Saul (Talut) : Saul is not considered a prophet, but a divinely appointed king. * Sons of Jacob: These men are sometimes not considered to be prophets, although most exegesis scholars consider them to be prophets, citing the hadith of Muhammad and their status as prophets in Judaism. The reason that some do not consider them as prophets is because of their behaviour with Yusuf (Joseph) and that they lied to their father. * Joshua (Yusha' Bin Nūn) : Joshua is the assistant of Moses when he visits al Khidr, and according to the Torah and the Bible, he was one of the two tribe messengers, along with Caleb that brought news that Jerusalem was habitable for the Jews. Joshua is also Moses' successor as the leader of the Jews, who led them to settle in Israel after Moses' death. Joshua (Yusha) entering into Jerusalem is also mentioned in the Hadith.


In Islamic literature


Numerous other people have been mentioned by scholars in the Hadith, exegesis, commentary. These people include: * Habil (Abel) * Danyal (Daniel) * Elizabeth (Alyassabat) * Hosea * Isaiah (Ishiya) * Jeremiah (Armaya) * Seth (Sheeth) * Shem (Syām)''A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism'', Appendix: "List of Prophets in Islam" * Zechariah, son of Berekiah (Zakariyya Bin Barakah)''The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary'', Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Note 364: "Examples of the Prophets slain were: "the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar" (Matt. 23:35)


See also


* The Twelve Imams * Succession to Muhammad * Biblical and Quranic narratives * Major prophets in the Bible * Table of prophets of Abrahamic religions * Twelve Minor Prophets * Peace be upon him


References




Bibliography

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External links



First prophet of islam: adam aleh salam


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