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Project Strato-Lab
Project Strato-Lab was a high-altitude manned balloon program sponsored by the United States Navy
United States Navy
during the 1950s and early 1960s. The Strato-Lab program lifted the first Americans into the upper reaches of the stratosphere since World War II. Project Strato-Lab developed out of the Navy's unmanned balloon program, Project Skyhook. The program was established in 1954 and administrated by Commander Malcolm Ross (United States Navy). Malcolm Ross and others developed the program to accomplish research required for the manned rocket program to follow. This program provided biomedical data that was used for subsequent efforts in space
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Gulf Of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
(Spanish: Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean,[1] largely surrounded by the North American continent.[2] It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast
Gulf Coast
of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. The U.S. states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama
Alabama
and Florida
Florida
border the Gulf on the north, which are often referred to as the "Third Coast" in comparison with the U.S
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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PGM-11 Redstone
The PGM-11 Redstone
PGM-11 Redstone
was the first large American ballistic missile. A short-range ballistic missile (SRBM), it was in active service with the United States Army
United States Army
in West Germany
West Germany
from June 1958 to June 1964 as part of NATO's Cold War
Cold War
defense of Western Europe. It was the first missile to carry a live nuclear warhead, in the 1958 Pacific Ocean weapons test, Hardtack Teak. Chief Engineer Wernher von Braun personally witnessed this historic launch and detonation.[1] Redstone was a direct descendant of the German V-2 rocket, developed by a team of predominantly German rocket engineers brought to the United States
United States
after World War II as part of Operation Paperclip
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Alan Shepard
Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman. In 1961 he became the first American to travel into space. A graduate of the United States Naval Academy
United States Naval Academy
at Annapolis, Shepard saw action with the surface navy during World War II. He became a naval aviator in 1946, and a test pilot in 1950. He was selected as one of the original NASA
NASA
Mercury Seven
Mercury Seven
astronauts in 1959, and in May 1961 he made the first manned Project Mercury
Project Mercury
flight, MR-3, in a spacecraft he named Freedom 7. His craft entered space, but was not capable of achieving orbit. He became the second person, and the first American, to travel into space, and the first person to manually control the orientation of his spacecraft
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Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin
Gagarin
(Russian: Ю́рий Алексе́евич Гага́рин[note 1], IPA: [ˈjʉrʲɪj ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ ɡɐˈɡarʲɪn]; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut. He was the first human to journey into outer space when his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit of the Earth
Earth
on 12 April 1961. Gagarin
Gagarin
became an international celebrity and was awarded many medals and titles, including Hero of the Soviet Union, the nation's highest honour. Vostok 1
Vostok 1
marked his only spaceflight, but he served as backup crew to the Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
mission (which ended in a fatal crash). Gagarin later became deputy training director of the Cosmonaut
Cosmonaut
Training Centre outside Moscow, which was later named after him
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Cosmonaut
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. Although generally reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists.[1][2] Starting in the 1950s up to 2002, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Harmon Trophy
The Harmon Trophy
Harmon Trophy
is a set of three international trophies, to be awarded annually to the world's outstanding aviator, aviatrix, and aeronaut (balloon or dirigible). A fourth trophy, the "National Trophy," was awarded from 1926 through 1938 to the most outstanding aviator in each of the twenty-one member countries and again from 1946-1948 to honor Americans who contributed to aviation. The award was established in 1926 by Clifford B. Harmon, a wealthy balloonist and aviator. The awards are described by the Clifford B. Harmon
Clifford B

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John F. Kennedy
President of the United StatesPresidencyTimeline1960 CampaignElectionInaugurationNew Frontier Foreign PolicyDoctrine"A Strategy of Peace" Bay of PigsCuban Missile Crisis Civil Rights AddressPartial Nuclear Test Ban TreatyClean Air Peace Corps"We choose to go to the Moon"Space programsMercury Gemini ApolloAppointmentsCabinet JudgesAssassination and legacyNovember 22, 1963 State Funeral Eternal Flame Memorials Library Legacy Cultural depictionsv t eJohn Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States
President of the United States
from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. Kennedy served at the height of the Cold War, and much of his presidency focused on managing relations with the Soviet Union
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Project Mercury
3 Mercury-Atlas
Mercury-Atlas
1 Mercury-Redstone 1 Mercury-Atlas
Mercury-Atlas
3Partial failures 1: Big Joe 1Launch site(s)
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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Solar Flare
A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface. Flares are often, but not always, accompanied by a coronal mass ejection.[1] Solar flares fall on a very broad spectrum of emissions, an energy release of typically 1020 joules of energy is considered to be the median for a well-observed event, while a major event can emit up to 1025 joules[2] The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms along with the electromagnetic waves through the Sun's corona into outer space. The phenomenon therefore provides an early example of multi-messenger astronomy. If ejection is in the direction of the Earth
Earth
the particles hitting the upper atmosphere can cause bright auroras, and may even disrupt long range radio communication
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Otto C. Winzen
Otto C. Winzen (1917–1979) was a German – American aeronautics engineer who made significant advances in the materials and construction of high-altitude balloons after World War II. Winzen emigrated to the United States
United States
in 1937 and spent time during the war in internment camps. He studied aeronautical engineering at the University of Detroit. After World War II, Winzen became involved in high-altitude balloon research, working with Jean Piccard. In 1949 he started his own company with his wife called Winzen Research, Inc. He created a number of plastic balloons, in particular of polyethylene, which he sold to the United States
United States
Army and Navy including the Skyhook balloon. In 1972 he developed the Winzen Research Balloon, which achieved the record for the highest unmanned balloon flight, setting a record altitude of 51,816 m over Chico, California. Otto C
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Jean Piccard
Jean Felix Piccard (January 28, 1884 in Basel, Switzerland
Switzerland
– January 28, 1963 in Minneapolis, Minnesota), also known as Jean Piccard, was a Swiss-born American chemist, engineer, professor and high-altitude balloonist. He invented clustered high-altitude balloons, and with his wife Jeannette, the plastic balloon. Piccard's inventions and co-inventions are used in balloon flight, aircraft and spacecraft.Contents1 Family 2 Stratosphere flight 3 Plastic
Plastic
balloons 4 Cluster balloons 5 Piccard family 6 In popular culture 7 Notes and references 8 External linksFamily[edit] Piccard and Jeannette Ridlon met at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
where he taught and she received her master's degree
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