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Project Mercury
3 Mercury-Atlas
Mercury-Atlas
1 Mercury-Redstone 1 Mercury-Atlas
Mercury-Atlas
3Partial failures 1: Big Joe 1Launch site(s)
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Juno I
The Juno I
Juno I
was a four-stage American booster rocket which launched America's first satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958. A member of the Redstone rocket family, it was derived from the Jupiter-C
Jupiter-C
sounding rocket. It is commonly confused with the Juno II
Juno II
launch vehicle, which was derived from the PGM-19 Jupiter
PGM-19 Jupiter
medium-range ballistic missile.Contents1 Development 2 History 3 Gallery 4 ReferencesDevelopment[edit] The Juno I
Juno I
consisted of a Jupiter-C
Jupiter-C
rocket with a fourth stage mounted on top of the "tub" of the third stage, and fired after third-stage burnout to boost the payload and fourth stage to an orbital velocity of 8 kilometres per second (29,000 km/h; 18,000 mph)
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Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
(LRO) is a NASA
NASA
robotic spacecraft currently orbiting the
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Vanguard (rocket)
The Vanguard rocket[2] was intended to be the first launch vehicle the United States would use to place a satellite into orbit. Instead, the Sputnik crisis
Sputnik crisis
caused by the surprise launch of Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
led the U.S., after the failure of Vanguard TV3, to quickly orbit the Explorer 1 satellite using a Juno I
Juno I
rocket, making Vanguard I
Vanguard I
the second successful U.S. orbital launch. Vanguard rockets were used by Project Vanguard
Project Vanguard
from 1957 to 1959. Of the eleven Vanguard rockets which the project attempted to launch, three successfully placed satellites into orbit
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Titan (rocket Family)
Titan is a family of United States expendable rockets used between 1959 and 2005. A total of 368 rockets of this family were launched, including all the Project Gemini
Project Gemini
manned flights of the mid-1960s. Titans were part of the US Air Force's intercontinental ballistic missile fleet until 1987, and lifted other American military payloads as well as civilian agency intelligence-gathering satellites. Titans also were used to send highly successful interplanetary scientific probes throughout the Solar System.Contents1 Titan I 2 Titan II 3 Titan III 4 Titan IV 5 Titan V 6 Rocket
Rocket
fuel 7 Accidents at Titan II silos 8 Retirement 9 Specifications 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External linksTitan I[edit] Main article: HGM-25A Titan I The HGM-25A Titan I
Titan I
was the first version of the Titan family of rockets
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Atlas-Agena
The Atlas-Agena
Atlas-Agena
was an American expendable launch system derived from the SM-65 Atlas
SM-65 Atlas
missile. It was a member of the Atlas family of rockets, and was launched 109 times between 1960 and 1978.[1] It was used to launch the first five Mariner unmanned probes to the planets Venus
Venus
and Mars, and the Ranger and Lunar Orbiter unmanned probes to the Moon. The upper stage was also used as an unmanned orbital target vehicle for the Gemini manned spacecraft to practice rendezvous and docking. However, the launch vehicle family was originally developed for the Air Force and most of its launches were classified DoD payloads. The Atlas-Agena
Atlas-Agena
was a two-and-a-half-stage rocket, with a stage-and-a-half Atlas missile as the first stage, and an RM-81 Agena second stage
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Saturn (rocket Family)
The Saturn family of American rocket boosters was developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond. Originally proposed as a military satellite launcher, they were adopted as the launch vehicles for the Apollo moon program. Three versions were built and flown: Saturn I, Saturn IB, and Saturn V. The Saturn name was proposed by von Braun in October 1958 as a logical successor to the Jupiter series as well as the Roman god's powerful position.[1] In 1963, president John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
identified the Saturn I
Saturn I
SA-5 launch as being the point where US lift capability would surpass the Soviets, after having been behind since Sputnik
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Saturn I
The Saturn I
Saturn I
(pronounced "Saturn one") was the United States' first heavy-lift dedicated space launcher, a rocket designed specifically to launch large payloads into low Earth orbit. Most of the rocket's power came from a clustered lower stage consisting of tanks taken from older rocket designs strapped together to make a single large booster, leading critics to jokingly refer to it as "Cluster's Last Stand". However, its design proved sound and very flexible. Its major successes were launching the Pegasus satellites and flight verification of the Apollo Command and Service Module aerodynamics in the launch phase. Originally intended as a near-universal military booster during the 1960s, it served only for a brief period and only with NASA; ten Saturn I
Saturn I
rockets were flown before it was replaced by the derivative Saturn IB, which featured a more powerful upper stage and improved instrumentation. President John F
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Saturn IB
The Saturn IB
Saturn IB
(pronounced "one B", also known as the Uprated Saturn I) was an American launch vehicle commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the Apollo program. It replaced the S-IV
S-IV
second stage of the Saturn I
Saturn I
with the much more powerful S-IVB, able to launch a partially fueled Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM) or a fully fueled Lunar Module (LM) into low Earth orbit for early flight tests before the larger Saturn V needed for lunar flight was ready. By sharing the S-IVB
S-IVB
upper stage, the Saturn IB
Saturn IB
and Saturn V
Saturn V
provided a common interface to the Apollo spacecraft
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Atlas-Centaur
The Atlas-Centaur
Atlas-Centaur
was an American expendable launch system derived from the SM-65 Atlas
SM-65 Atlas
D missile. Launches were conducted from Launch Complex 36 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
in Florida.Contents1 Early development and testing 2 Operational launches 3 Variants 4 ReferencesEarly development and testing[edit] Convair, the manufacturer of the Atlas, developed the Centaur upper stage specifically for that booster, sharing its inflated balloon skin. It was also the first production rocket stage to utilize liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) as propellants
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Atlas V
Atlas V
Atlas V
(pronounced "atlas five") is an expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family. It was formerly operated by Lockheed Martin and is now operated by United Launch Alliance
United Launch Alliance
(ULA), a joint venture with Boeing. Each Atlas V
Atlas V
rocket uses a Russian-built RD-180
RD-180
engine burning kerosene and liquid oxygen to power its first stage and an American-built RL10
RL10
engine burning liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to power its Centaur upper stage. The RD-180
RD-180
engines are provided by RD Amross, while Aerojet Rocketdyne
Aerojet Rocketdyne
provides both the RL10
RL10
engines and the strap-on boosters used in some configurations. The standard payload fairing sizes are 4 or 5 meters in diameter and of various lengths
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Project Vanguard
Project Vanguard
Project Vanguard
was a program managed by the United States
United States
Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which intended to launch the first artificial satellite into Earth
Earth
orbit using a Vanguard rocket[1] as the launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Missile Annex, Florida. In response to the surprise launch of Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
on October 4, 1957, the U.S. restarted the Explorer program, which had been proposed earlier by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency
Army Ballistic Missile Agency
(ABMA). Privately, however, the CIA and President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D

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Lunar Orbiter Program
The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States
United States
from 1966 through 1967. Intended to help select Apollo landing sites by mapping the Moon's surface,[1] they provided the first photographs from lunar orbit. All five missions were successful, and 99% of the Moon
Moon
was mapped from photographs taken with a resolution of 60 meters (200 ft) or better. The first three missions were dedicated to imaging 20 potential manned lunar landing sites, selected based on Earth-based observations. These were flown at low-inclination orbits. The fourth and fifth missions were devoted to broader scientific objectives and were flown in high-altitude polar orbits
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Surveyor Program
The Surveyor program
Surveyor program
was a NASA
NASA
program that, from June 1966 through January 1968, sent seven robotic spacecraft to the surface of the Moon. Its primary goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of soft landings on the Moon. The Surveyor craft were the first American spacecraft to achieve soft landing on an extraterrestrial body. The missions called for the craft to travel directly to the Moon
Moon
on an impact trajectory, a journey that lasted 63 to 65 hours, and ended with a deceleration of just over three minutes to a soft landing. The program was implemented by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
(JPL) to prepare for the Apollo program
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Viking Program
The Viking program
Viking program
consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1
Viking 1
and Viking 2.[1] Each spacecraft was composed of two main parts: an orbiter designed to photograph the surface of Mars
Mars
from orbit, and a lander designed to study the planet from the surface. The orbiters also served as communication relays for the landers once they touched down. The Viking program
Viking program
grew from NASA's earlier, even more ambitious, Voyager Mars
Mars
program, which was not related to the successful Voyager deep space probes of the late 1970s
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Ranger Program
The Ranger program
Ranger program
was a series of unmanned space missions by the United States
United States
in the 1960s whose objective was to obtain the first close-up images of the surface of the Moon. The Ranger spacecraft were designed to take images of the lunar surface, transmitting those images to Earth until the spacecraft were destroyed upon impact. A series of mishaps, however, led to the failure of the first six flights. At one point, the program was called "shoot and hope".[1] Congress launched an investigation into “problems of management” at NASA
NASA
Headquarters and Jet Propulsion Laboratory.[2] After two reorganizations of the agencies,[citation needed] Ranger 7 successfully returned images in July 1964, followed by two more successful missions. Ranger was originally designed, beginning in 1959, in three distinct phases, called "blocks"
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