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Progressive Citizens Of America
Progressivism
Progressivism
in the United States is a broadly based reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century and is generally considered to be middle class and reformist in nature. It arose as a response to the vast changes brought by modernization, such as the growth of large corporations, pollution and fears of corruption in American politics. In the 21st century, progressives continue to embrace concepts such as environmentalism and social justice.[1] Social progressivism, the view that governmental practices ought to be adjusted as society evolves, forms the ideological basis for many American progressives. Historian Alonzo Hamby defined progressivism as the "political movement that addresses ideas, impulses, and issues stemming from modernization of American society
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Modern Liberalism In The United States
Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States. It is characterized by social liberalism,[1] and combines ideas of civil liberty and equality with support for social justice and a mixed economy.[1] This form of liberalism took shape in twentieth century America, as the franchise and other civil rights were extended to a larger class of citizens. Major examples include Theodore Roosevelt's New Nationalism, Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom, Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, Harry S. Truman's Fair Deal, John F. Kennedy's New Frontier, and Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society. Economically, modern American liberalism supported increased government spending and reduced privatization of healthcare, education, and welfare. In the first half of the twentieth century, both major American parties had a conservative wing and a liberal wing
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Welfare
Welfare
Welfare
is the provision of a minimal level of well-being and social support for citizens and other eligible residents without sufficient current means to support basic needs. In most developed countries, welfare is mainly provided by the government from tax revenue, and to a lesser extent by NGOs, charities, informal social groups, religious groups, and inter-governmental organizations. Social security
Social security
expands on this concept, especially in welfare states, by providing all inhabitants with various social services such as universal healthcare, unemployment insurance, student financial aid (in addition to free post-secondary education), and others. In its 1952 Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention (nr
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Scientific Progress
Scientific progress is the idea that science increases its problem-solving ability through the application of the scientific method.Contents1 Discontinuous model of scientific progress 2 History of science
History of science
as a model of scientific progress 3 Origins of the concept 4 Quotes on scientific progress 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 Bibliography 8 External linksDiscontinuous model of scientific progress[edit] Several philosophers of science have supported arguments that the progress of science is discontinuous. In that case, progress isn't a continuous accumulation, but rather a revolutionary process where brand new ideas are adopted and old ideas become abandoned. Thomas Kuhn was a major proponent of this model of scientific progress, as explained in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. This is especially supported by studying the incommensurability of theories
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Social Change
Social change
Social change
is an alteration in the social order of a society. Social change
Social change
may include changes in nature, social institutions, social behaviours, or social relations.Contents1 Definition 2 Prominent theories 3 Current social changes3.1 Global demographic shifts 3.2 Gendered patterns of work and care4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksDefinition[edit] Social change
Social change
may refer to the notion of social progress or sociocultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by dialectical or evolutionary means. It may refer to a paradigmatic change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism and towards capitalism. Accordingly, it may also refer to social revolution, such as the Socialist revolution presented in Marxism, or to other social movements, such as Women's suffrage or the Civil rights movement
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Sustainable Design
Sustainable design
Sustainable design
(also called environmentally sustainable design, environmentally conscious design, etc.) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability.[1]Contents1 Theory1.1 Conceptual problems1.1.1 Diminishing returns 1.1.2 Unsustainable investment 1.1.3 Waste prevention1.2
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Ecological Engineering
Ecological engineering
Ecological engineering
uses ecology and engineering to predict, design, construct or restore, and manage ecosystems that integrate "human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both".[1]Contents1 Origins, Key Concepts, Definitions, and Applications 2 Design guidelines, functional classes, and design principles 3 Academic curriculum 4 Literature 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOrigins, Key Concepts, Definitions, and Applications[edit] Ecological engineering
Ecological engineering
emerged as a new idea in the early 1960s, but its definition has taken several decades to refine, its implementation is still undergoing adjustment, and its broader recognition as a new paradigm is relatively recent
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Self-determination
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations
United Nations
as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.[1][2] It states that a people, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair equality of opportunity, have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no interference.[3] The concept was first expressed in the 1860s, and spread rapidly thereafter.[4][5] During and after World War I, the principle was encouraged by both Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
and United States President Woodrow Wilson.[4][5] Having announced his Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
on 8 January 1918, on 11 February 1918 Wilson stated: "National aspirations must be respected; people may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent
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Scientific Management
Scientific management
Scientific management
is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows. Its main objective is improving economic efficiency, especially labour productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management. Scientific management
Scientific management
is sometimes known as Taylorism after its founder, Frederick Winslow Taylor.[1] Taylor began the theory's development in the United States
United States
during the 1880s and '90s within manufacturing industries, especially steel
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Scientific Method
The scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.[2] To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry is commonly based on empirical or measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.[3] The Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the scientific method as "a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses".[4] Experiments are a procedure designed to test hypotheses. Experiments are an important tool of the scientific method.[5][6] The method is a continuous process that begins with observations about the natural world. People are naturally inquisitive, so they often come up with questions about things they see or hear, and they often develop ideas or hypotheses about why things are the way they are
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Sustainable Development
Sustainable development
Sustainable development
isthe organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resource use continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Sustainable development
Sustainable development
can be classified as development that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations.While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived mostly from the 1987 Brundtland Report, it is also rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth century environmental concerns
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Technological Change
Technological change, technological development, technological achievement, or technological progress is the overall process of invention, innovation and diffusion of technology or processes.[1][2] In essence technological change is the invention of technologies (including processes) and their commercialization or release as open source via research and development (producing emerging technologies), the continual improvement of technologies (in which they often become less expensive), and the diffusion of technologies throughout industry or society (which sometimes involves disruption and convergence)
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Techno-progressivism
Techno-progressivism
Techno-progressivism
or tech-progressivism[citation needed] is a stance of active support for the convergence of technological change and social change. Techno-progressives argue that technological developments can be profoundly empowering and emancipatory when they are regulated by legitimate democratic and accountable authorities to ensure that their costs, risks and benefits are all fairly shared by the actual stakeholders to those developments.[1][2]Contents1 Stance 2 Contrasting stance 3 List of notable techno-progressive social critics 4 Controversy 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStance[edit] Techno-progressivism
Techno-progressivism
maintains that accounts of progress should focus on scientific and technical dimensions, as well as ethical and social ones
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Women's Suffrage
Women's suffrage
Women's suffrage
(colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.[1] Limited voting rights were gained by women in Finland, Iceland, Sweden
Sweden
and some Australian colonies and western U.S. states in the late 19th century.[2] National and international organizations formed to coordinate efforts to gain voting rights, especially the International Woman
Woman
Suffrage
Suffrage
Alliance (founded in 1904, Berlin, Germany), and also worked for equal civil rights for women.[3] In 1881, the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
gave women who owned property the right to vote
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Social Progress
Social progress
Social progress
is the idea that societies can or do improve in terms of their social, political, and economic structures. This may happen as a result of direct human action, as in social enterprise or through activism, or as a natural part of sociocultural evolution. The concept of social progress was introduced in the early 19th century social theories, especially social evolution as described by Auguste Comte
Auguste Comte
and Herbert Spencer. It was present in the Enlightenment's philosophies of history
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List Of Liberal Theorists
Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment. Liberalism
Liberalism
as a specifically named ideology begins in the late 18th century as a movement towards self-government and away from aristocracy. It included the ideas of self-determination, the primacy of the individual and the nation, as opposed to the state and religion, as being the fundamental units of law, politics and economy. Since then liberalism has broadened to include a wide range of approaches from Americans Ronald Dworkin, Richard Rorty, John Rawls and Francis Fukuyama
Francis Fukuyama
as well as the Indian Amartya Sen
Amartya Sen
and the Peruvian Hernando de Soto. Some of these people moved away from liberalism, while others espoused other ideologies before turning to liberalism
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