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Pro Ligario
Cicero's oration Pro Ligario is the published literary form of his defense of Quintus Ligarius before Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 46 BC. In this speech Cicero
Cicero
defends Ligarius, who is accused of crimes in Africa. Ligarius' accuser is Tubero, who has himself committed crimes in Africa. Cicero
Cicero
attempts to use Tubero's behavior to mitigate the charges Ligarius faces. Cicero
Cicero
also uses captatio benevolentiae, a rhetorical technique which flatters the audience (Caesar, in this case)
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Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar[a] (/ˈsiːzər/; 12 or 13 July 100 BC[1] – 15 March 44 BC),[2] usually called Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and the rise of the Roman Empire. He is also known as a notable author of Latin
Latin
prose. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus
Crassus
and Pompey
Pompey
formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics
Roman politics
for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger
Cato the Younger
with the frequent support of Cicero
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Africa (Roman Province)
French Algeria
Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)French conquest French governorsResistance PacificationEmir Abdelkader Fatma N'SoumerMokrani Revolt Cheikh BouamamaNationalism RCUA FLN GPRAAlgerian War 1958 putsch 1961 putschÉvian Accords Independence referendumPied-Noir Harkis Oujda GroupContemporary era 1960s–80sArab nationalism 1965 putschBerber Spring 1988 Riots1990s Algerian Civil War
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Captatio Benevolentiae
Captatio benevolentiae (Latin for "winning of goodwill") is a rhetorical technique aimed to capture the goodwill of the audience at the beginning of a speech or appeal. It was practiced by Roman orators, with Cicero considering it one of the pillars of oratory.[1] During the Middle Ages it was used in court cases to gain the judge's favor, with lavish praise of the judge's wisdom considered most effective by Guillaume Durand.[2] In parallel, the techniques of the captatio benevolentiae began to be used in the prologues of chivalric romance novels, addressing the readers and trying to have them view the work favourably.[3] References[edit]^ Calboli Montefusco, Lucia (2006). "Captatio benevolentiae". In Cancik, Hubert; Schneider, Helmuth. Brill’s New Pauly. Antiquity volumes. Brill Online. Retrieved 20 April 2014.  ^ Brundage, James A. (2008). The Medieval Origins of the Legal Profession. 1
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Rhetoric
Rhetoric
Rhetoric
is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. It can also be in a visual form; as a subject of formal study and a productive civic practice, rhetoric has played a central role in the European tradition.[1] Its best known definition comes from Aristotle, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion."[2] Rhetoric
Rhetoric
typically provides heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals, logos, pathos, and ethos. The five canons of rhetoric, which trace the traditional tasks in designing a persuasive speech, were first codified in classical Rome: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery
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Wikisource
Wikisource
Wikisource
is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource
Wikisource
is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project (each instance usually representing a different language); multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts (its first text was the Déclaration universelle des Droits de l'Homme), it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name Project Sourceberg, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource
Wikisource
was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later
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Epistulae Ad Quintum Fratrem
Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem (Letters to brother Quintus) is a collection of letters from Roman politician and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero to his younger brother Quintus. The letters in this collection, when combined with Cicero's other letters, are considered the most reliable sources of information for the period leading up to the fall of the Roman Republic. His letters to Quintus share a similar quality to those sent to his close friend Titus Pomponius Atticus, written with a freedom and frankness not to be found in his correspondence with others. Traditionally spanning 3 books, and featuring letters from 60 or 59 to 54 BCE, this collection may have been first published by Cicero's freedman and personal secretary Marcus Tullius Tiro sometime after the deaths of both brothers in 43 BCE.[1][2] References[edit]^ Shackleton Bailey, D. R., ed. (May 2002). Letters to Quintus and Brutus. Letter Fragments. Letter to Octavian. Invectives. Handbook of Electioneering
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Pro Roscio Amerino
The speech Pro Roscio Amerino
Pro Roscio Amerino
was given by Marcus Tullius Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero
on behalf of Roscius of Ameria. Roscius was accused of murdering his father. The speech was given by Cicero
Cicero
in 80 BC.Contents1 The background of the case 2 Outcome and aftermath of the case 3 Content of the speech 4 Scholarly observations of the speech4.1 The dilemma 4.2 Publication 4.3 Urban vs. rural stereotypes 4.4 Use of comic motifs in the speech 4.5 Gladiatorial metaphors in the speech5 Portrayal 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksThe background of the case[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Paradoxa Stoicorum
The Paradoxa Stoicorum (English: Stoic Paradoxes) is a work by Cicero in which he attempts to explain six famous Stoic sayings that appear to go against common knowledge.Contents1 Writing 2 Contents 3 Scholarship 4 Manuscripts 5 Editions 6 References 7 External linksWriting[edit] It was written sometime around 46 BC.[1] The work is dedicated to Marcus Brutus.[2] In the introduction, Cicero praises Brutus' uncle Cato the Younger who was still alive at this date.[2] Cicero was motivated to write the work in order to re-express Stoic arguments within the language of rhetorical Latin
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De Imperio Cn. Pompei
De Imperio Cn. Pompei, also known as Pro Lege Manilia, was a speech delivered by Cicero in 66 BC before the Roman popular assembly in support of the proposal made by Gaius Manilius, a tribune of the people, that Pompey the Great be given sole command against Mithridates in the Third Mithridatic War.[1][2] Cicero advertised Pompey as the only man with the skills for the campaign but also attempted to avoid offending the senatorial aristocracy unnecessarily. However, by supporting Pompey, Cicero had publicly committed himself. References[edit]^ Marcus Tullius Cicero (1966). De Imperio Cn. Pompei ad Quirites oratio: pro lege Manilia. Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 978-0-86292-182-8.  ^ Marcus Tullius Cicero (1905). M. Tulli Ciceronis Orationes: Pro Sex. Roscio ; De imperio Cn. Pompei ; Pro Cluentio ; In Catilinam ; Pro Murena ; Pro Caelio. Oxford University Press. pp. 90–
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Catiline Orations
The Catiline
Catiline
or Catilinarian Orations is a set of speeches to the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
given by Marcus Tullius Cicero, one of the year's consuls, accusing a Senator, Lucius Sergius Catilina (Catiline), of leading a plot to overthrow the Roman government. Some modern historians, and ancient sources such as Sallust, suggest that Catiline was a more complex and sympathetic character than Cicero's writings declare, and that Cicero, a career politician, was heavily influenced by a desire to establish decisively a lasting reputation as a great Roman patriot and statesman.[1] Most accounts of the events come from Cicero
Cicero
himself
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In Toga Candida
In Toga Candida is a speech given by Cicero
Cicero
during his election campaign in 64 BC for the consulship of 63 BC. The speech was directed at his competitors, Catilina
Catilina
and Antonius, who were also running for consulship for the same year. The speech no longer survives, though a commentary on it written by Asconius does survive.[1] The speech is called Oratio in Toga Candida since candidates wore specially whitened (Latin candida) togas. Cicero
Cicero
used his election campaign speech to denounce his rivals and hint at secret powers behind Catiline. The tactics were successful and he secured the consulship.[2][3][4] References[edit]^ Petersson, Torstein (1920). Cicero: A Biography. Out of Copyright reprint Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1417951864.  ^ H.H
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Pro Milone
The Pro Tito Annio Milone ad iudicem oratio (Pro Milone) is a speech made by Marcus Tullius Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero
on behalf of his friend Titus Annius Milo. Milo was accused of murdering his political enemy Publius Clodius Pulcher on the Via Appia. Cicero
Cicero
wrote the speech after the hearing and so the authenticity of the speech is debated among scholars. Cicero
Cicero
at about the age of 60, from an ancient marble bustContents1 Background to trial 2 Beginning of trial 3 Content of speech 4 Outcome 5 Aftermath 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksBackground to trial[edit] Milo was a praetor at the time who was attempting to gain the much-wanted post of consul. Clodius was a former tribune standing for the office of praetor. The charge was brought against Milo for the death of Clodius following a violent altercation on the Via Appia, outside Clodius' estate in Bovillae
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Pro Marcello
Pro Marcello is a speech by Marcus Tullius Cicero. It is Latin for On behalf of Marcellus. Background[edit] Marcus Claudius Marcellus was descended from an illustrious Roman family, and had been Consul with Servius Sulpicius Rufus, in which office he had given great offence to Caesar by making a motion in the Senate to deprive him of his command. In the Civil War, he supported Pompey, and had been present at the Battle of Pharsalia, after which he retired in exile to Lesbos. But, after some time, the Senate interceded with Caesar to pardon him, and allow him to return
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Philippicae
The Philippicae or Philippics are a series of 14 speeches Cicero
Cicero
gave condemning Mark Antony
Mark Antony
in 44 and 43 BC. Cicero
Cicero
likened these speeches to those of Demosthenes' Philippic (Ad Atticus, 2.1.3), which Demosthenes
Demosthenes
had delivered against Philip of Macedon. Cicero's Second Phillipic is in-fact styled after Demosthenes' De Corona ('On the Crown').Contents1 Political climate 2 Summary 3 Consequence 4 References 5 Literature 6 External linksPolitical climate[edit] Cicero
Cicero
was taken by surprise when Gaius Julius Caesar, the effective dictator of the Roman Republic, was assassinated on the fifteenth day of March, 44 BC, (known as the Ides of March) by a group of Roman senators who called themselves Liberatores
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Pro Quinctio
The speech Pro Quinctio was given by Marcus Tullius Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero
on behalf of Publius Quintius. Gaius Quintius and Sextus Naevius, one of the public criers, had been partners, having their chief business in Gallia Narbonensis. Gaius died, and left his brother Publius his heir, between whom and Naevius there arose disputes concerning the division of the property of the partnership.[1] References[edit]^ C. D. Yonge, The Orations of Marcus Tullius Cicero, Vol. 1., London, 1856; Johannes Platschek, Studien zu Ciceros Rede für P
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