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Prisse Papyrus
The Prisse Papyrus, dating from the twelfth dynasty Egyptian Middle Kingdom,[1] was discovered by the French orientalist Émile Prisse d'Avennes at Thebes and published in 1847 and is now in the Bibliothèque nationale de France
Bibliothèque nationale de France
in Paris. The papyrus document contains the last two pages of the Instructions of Kagemni, who purportedly served under the 4th Dynasty
4th Dynasty
king Sneferu, and is a compilation of moral maxims and admonitions on the practice of virtue. The conclusion of the Instructions of Kagemni
Instructions of Kagemni
is followed by the only complete surviving copy of the Instruction of Ptahhotep.[2][3][4][5]Contents1 See also 2 References 3 Literature 4 External linksSee also[edit]I. E. S. Edwards N. G. L. Hammond Franz Joseph Lauth Miriam Lichtheim Battiscombe GunnReferences[edit]^ I. E. S. Edwards, N. G. L. Hammond, C. J
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The Maxims Of Ptahhotep
The Maxims of Ptahhotep or Instruction of Ptahhotep is an ancient Egyptian literary composition based on the Vizier Ptahhotep’s wisdom and experiences. The Instructions were composed by the Vizier Ptahhotep, during the rule of King Izezi of the Fifth Dynasty.[1] The text was discovered in Thebes in 1847 by Egyptologist M. Prisse d’Avennes.[2] The Instructions of Ptahhotep are called wisdom literature, specifically under the genre of Instructions that teach something.[3] They are four copies of the Instructions, and the only complete version, Papyrus Prisse, is located in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.[4] According to William Kelly Simpson, some scholars debate that the Instructions of Ptahhotep were written during the twelfth dynasty, Middle Kingdom
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Egyptology
Egyptology
Egyptology
(from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. Arabic: علم المصريات‎) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD. A practitioner of the discipline is an "Egyptologist". In Europe, particularly on the Continent, Egyptology
Egyptology
is primarily regarded as being a philological discipline, while in North America it is often regarded as a branch of archaeology.Contents1 History1.1 First explorers 1.2 Graeco-Roman Period 1.3 Middle Ages2 Development of the field2.1 Muslim scholars 2.2 European explorers3 Modern Egyptology 4 Academic discipline 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory First explorers The first explorers were the ancient Egyptians
Egyptians
themselves
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Thebes, Egypt
Thebes (Ancient Greek: Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile
Nile
about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome (Sceptre nome) and was the capital of Egypt
Egypt
mainly during the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. It was close to Nubia
Nubia
and the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was a cult center and the most venerated city of ancient Egypt
Egypt
during its heyday
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The Bibliothèque nationale de France
France
(BnF, English: National Library of France; French: [bi.bli.jɔ.tɛk na.sjɔ.nal də fʁɑ̃s]) is the national library of France, located in Paris. It is the national repository of all that is published in France
France
and also holds extensive historical collections.Contents1 History 2 New buildings 3 Mission 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection 5 Digital library 6 List of directors6.1 1369–1792 6.2 1792–present7 Films about the library 8 Famous patrons 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksHistory[edit] The National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace
Louvre Palace
by Charles V in 1368
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Papyrus
Papyrus
Papyrus
/pəˈpaɪrəs/ is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge.[1] Papyrus (plural: papyri) can also refer to a document written on sheets of such material, joined together side by side and rolled up into a scroll, an early form of a book.An official letter on a papyrus of the 3rd century BCE Papyrus
Papyrus
is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First Dynasty), as the papyrus plant was once abundant across the Nile Delta. It was also used throughout the Mediterranean region and in the Kingdom of Kush
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Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Egypt
was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
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4th Dynasty
The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IV or Dynasty 4) is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom. Dynasty IV lasted from c. 2613 to 2494 BC.[1] It was a time of peace and prosperity as well as one during which trade with other countries is documented. Dynasties III, IV, V and VI are often combined under the group title the Old Kingdom, which often is described as the Age of the Pyramids. The capital at that time was Memphis.Contents1 Pharaohs1.1 Sneferu 1.2 Khufu, Djedefre, Khafre, and Menkaure 1.3 Baka 1.4 Khentkaus I 1.5 Shepseskaf and Djedefptah2 Dynasty IV timeline 3 See also 4 ReferencesPharaohs[edit]Pottery shred with male head in relief and incised torso. Possibly part of pot stand. Nile silt fabric. 4th Dynasty. From Kopots (Qift), Egypt
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Sneferu
Sneferu
Sneferu
(also read Snefru or Snofru)[citation needed], well known under his Hellenized name Soris (Greek: Σῶρις) (by Manetho), was the founding monarch of the 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom. Estimates of his reign vary, with for instance The Oxford History of Ancien
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Middle Kingdom Of Egypt
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
(also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt
Egypt
between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II
Mentuhotep II
of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. Some scholars also include the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Egypt
wholly into this period as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would finish c. 1650, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay
Merneferre Ay
c. 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in both Upper and Lower Egypt
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I. E. S. Edwards
Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen Edwards CBE, FBA (21 July 1909 – 24 September 1996)[1] — known as I. E. S. Edwards— was an English Egyptologist
Egyptologist
considered to be a leading expert on the pyramids.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 Family 3 See also 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Born in London, he was the son of Edward Edwards (1870–1944) of the British Museum, and his wife Ellen Jane Higgs.[2] He attended Merchant Taylors' School, where he studied Hebrew,[3] and then Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, gaining a first class in Oriental Languages. He was awarded the William Wright studentship in Arabic and received his doctorate in 1933. In 1934 Edwards joined the British Museum
British Museum
as Assistant Keeper in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities. He published Hieroglyphic Texts for Egyptian Stellae. in 1939. During World War II he was sent to Egypt on military duty
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N. G. L. Hammond
Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond, CBE, DSO, FBA (15 November 1907 – 24 March 2001) was a British scholar of ancient Greece and an operative for the British Special Operations Executive
Special Operations Executive
(SOE) in occupied Greece during World War II.Contents1 Life and writings 2 Personal life 3 Selected works 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife and writings[edit] Hammond studied classics at Fettes College[1] and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. He excelled in his exams and also spent vacations exploring Greece and Albania on foot, acquiring knowledge of the topography and terrain, as well as fluency in Albanian. These abilities led him to be recruited by the Special
Special
Operations Executive during World War II
World War II
in 1940. His activities included many dangerous sabotage missions in Greece (especially on the Greek island of Crete) as well as in Albania
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Franz Joseph Lauth
Franz Joseph Lauth (18 February 1822, Landau, Germany – 11 February 1895, Munich), was a German Egyptologist.Contents1 Career 2 Selected works 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingCareer[edit] From 1842-1845 he studied classical philology. In 1849 he became a teacher at the Wilhelmsgymnasium (Munich).From 1863 to 1865 he traveled in Egypt
Egypt
(Part of the Ottoman Empire). In 1865 he was appointed professor at the Maximilians Gymnasium and received the Great Golden Medal from Maximilian II of Bavaria, for his chronological studies of the zodiac circle of Dendera and Manetho.[1] From this recognization he was able to gain access to the collections at the court and library of king Ludwig I of Bavaria and study the royal collection of Egyptian artifacts held within. He later studied similar collections in Vienna, Trieste, Rome, Florence, Paris, London and Leiden
Leiden
(focusing especially on the papyri)
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Miriam Lichtheim
Miriam Lichtheim (3 May 1914, Istanbul
Istanbul
– 27 March 2004, Jerusalem) was an Israeli translator of ancient Egyptian texts whose translations are still widely used. Biography[edit] In the 1930s, she studied under Hans Jakob Polotsky in the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. In a paper of recollections about her teacher[1] she recalls that, at the beginning of the year, in Polotsky's Egyptian class there were four students; at the end, only she remained. In 1941, she travelled to the United States where she studied and received a Ph.D. in Egyptology from the University of Chicago. She worked as an academic librarian at Yale
Yale
University, and then at the University of California, Los Angeles, where she was Near East Bibliographer and Lecturer until her retirement in 1974. In 1982, she moved to Israel
Israel
where she taught at the Hebrew University
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Twelfth Dynasty Of Egypt
The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII), is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.Contents1 Rulers1.1 Amenemhat I
Amenemhat I
and Senusret I 1.2 Senusret III 1.3 Amenemhat III2 Ancient Egyptian literature 3 See also 4 ReferencesRulers[edit] Known rulers of the Twelfth Dynasty are as follows:[1]Dynasty XII pharaohs of EgyptName of King Horus (Throne) Name Date Pyramid Queen(s)Amenem
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