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Principality Of Turov
The PRINCIPALITY OF TUROV, also called DUCHY OF TUROV AND PINSK (Belarusian : Турава-Пінскае княства, Ukrainian : Турово-Пінське князівство) by East Slavic scholars, was a medieval principality and important subdivision of Kievan Rus since the 10th century on the territory of modern southern Belarus
Belarus
and northern Ukraine
Ukraine
. Princes of Turov often served as the Grand Princes of Rus early in 10th-11th centuries. The principality's capital was Turov (now called Turaŭ) and other important cities were Pinsk
Pinsk
, Mazyr , Slutsk , Lutsk , Berestia , and Volodymyr . Until the 12th century the principality was very closely associated with the principalities of Kiev and Volhynia
Volhynia

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Casimir I Of Poland
CASIMIR I THE RESTORER (Polish : KAZIMIERZ I ODNOWICIEL; b. Kraków
Kraków
, 25 July 1016 – d. Poznań
Poznań
, 28 November 1058), was Duke
Duke
of Poland
Poland
of the Piast dynasty
Piast dynasty
and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death. He was the only son of Mieszko II Lambert
Mieszko II Lambert
by his wife Richeza , daughter of Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
(of the Ezzonids ) and granddaughter of Emperor Otto II . Casimir is known as the Restorer because he managed to reunite all parts of the Polish Kingdom after a period of turmoil. He reinstated Masovia , Silesia
Silesia
and Pomerania
Pomerania
into his realm
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Knyaz
KNYAZ or KNEZ is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title, usually translated into English either as Prince
Prince
or less commonly as Duke
Duke
, and in Latin
Latin
sources as comes or princeps , but the word was originally derived from the Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
kuningaz (king). The female form transliterated from Bulgarian and Russian is knyaginya (княгиня), kniahynia (княгиня) in Ukrainian , kneginja in Slovene , Croatian and Serbian (Serbian Cyrillic : кнегиња). In Russian, the daughter of a knyaz is knyazhna (княжна), in Ukrainian is kniazivna (князівна). In Russian, the son of a knyaz is knyazhich (княжич) (old form). The title is pronounced and written similarly in different European languages
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Vsevolod I Of Kiev
VSEVOLOD I YAROSLAVICH (Russian : Всеволод I Ярославович, Ukrainian : Всеволод I Ярославич, Old Norse
Old Norse
: Vissivald), (1030 – 13 April 1093) ruled as Grand Prince of Kiev
Kiev
from 1078 until his death. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Reign * 3 Children * 4 Ancestry * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links EARLY LIFEHe was the fifth and favourite son of Yaroslav I the Wise
Yaroslav I the Wise
by Ingigerd Olafsdottir . He was born around 1030. On his seal from his last years, he was named "Andrei Vsevolodu" in Greek, implying that his baptismal name was Andrew
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Yaropolk Izyaslavich
YAROPOLK IZYASLAVICH (died 1087) was a Knyaz (prince) during the eleventh-century in the Kievan Rus\' kingdom and was the King of Rus (1076–1078). The son of Grand Prince Izyaslav Yaroslavich by a Polish princess named Gertruda , he is visible in papal sources by the early 1070s but largely absent in contemporary Rus sources until his father's death in 1078. During his father's exile in the 1070s, Yaropolk can be found acting on his father's behalf in an attempt to gain the favor of the German emperors and the papal court of Pope Gregory VII . His father returned to Kiev in 1077 and Yaropolk followed. After his father's death Yaropolk was appointed Prince of Volhynia and Prince of Turov in 1078 by the new Grand Prince, his uncle Vsevolod . By 1085 Yaropolk had fallen into a state of enmity with the Grand Prince, and by extension the Grand Prince's son Vladimir Monomakh , forcing him to flee to Poland, his mother's homeland
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Izyaslav I Of Kiev
IZIASLAV YAROSLAVICH (1024 – 3 October 1078, baptized as Demetrius) Kniaz\' (Prince) of Turov , Veliki Kniaz (Grand Prince ) of Kiev (from 1054). Iziaslav's children Yaropolk and Sviatopolk would rule the Turov Principality. Their authority was mainly challenged by the Rostilavichi of Rostislav Vsevolodovich . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Children * 3 Ancestry * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYIziaslav was the oldest son of Yaroslav I the Wise by his second wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir . Iziaslav succeeded his father, after Yaroslav's oldest child, Vladimir (the only child by Yaroslav's first wife), had predeceased his father. Iziaslav was one of the authors of "Pravda Yaroslavichiv" – a part of the first legal code of Rus , called Russkaya Pravda . He is also credited with the foundation of the Kiev Pechersk Monastery
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Yaroslav The Wise
YAROSLAV I, GRAND PRINCE OF RUS\', known as YAROSLAV THE WISE or IAROSLAV THE WISE ( Old East Slavic : Ꙗрославъ Володимировичъ Мѫдрꙑи, Jaroslavŭ Volodimirovičŭ Mǫdryi; Old Norse : Jarizleifr Valdamarsson; Russian : Яросла́в Му́дрый, Yaroslav Mudry; Ukrainian : Ярослав Мудрий, Yaroslav Mudriy; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod
Veliky Novgorod
and Kiev
Kiev
, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. Yaroslav's Christian name was George (Yuri ) after Saint George ( Old East Slavic : Гюрьгi, Gjurĭgì). A son of Vladimir the Great , the first Christian Prince of Novgorod, Yaroslav acted as vice-regent of Novgorod
Novgorod
at the time of his father's death in 1015
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Primary Chronicle
The TALE OF PAST YEARS (Old East Slavic : Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or PRIMARY CHRONICLE is a history of Kievan Rus\' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev
Kiev
about 1113. The work is considered to be a fundamental source in the interpretation of the history of the Eastern Slavs . CONTENTS* 1 Three editions * 1.1 First * 1.2 Second * 1.3 Third * 2 Two manuscripts * 3 Assessment * 4 See also * 5 Further reading * 6 External links THREE EDITIONSFIRSTTradition long regarded the original compilation as the work of a monk named Nestor (c. 1056 – c. 1114); hence scholars spoke of Nestor's Chronicle or of Nestor's manuscript. His compilation has not survived
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Rogvolod
ROGVOLOD (Russian : Рогволод, Rogvolod; Belarusian : Рагвалод, Rahvałod) (c. 920 – 978) was first chronicled prince of Polatsk (945–978). In the Russian Primary Chronicle , he is known as Рогъволодъ, probably a slavicized version of the Old Norse name Ragnvald . He came from overseas (i.e., from Scandinavia or Southern Baltic ) and established himself at Polatsk in the mid-10th century. According to the Russian Primary Chronicle, Vladimir the Great sought an alliance with him in 980 by marrying his daughter Rogneda , but she insultingly refused, prompting Vladimir to attack Rogvolod and his sons and kill them, after which he forcibly took Rogneda as his wife
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Vladimir The Great
VLADIMIR THE GREAT (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Old East Slavic : Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove ) was a prince of Novgorod
Novgorod
, grand prince of Kiev
Kiev
, and ruler of Kievan Rus\' from 980 to 1015. Vladimir's father was prince Sviatoslav of the Rurik dynasty
Rurik dynasty
. After the death of his father in 972, Vladimir, who was then prince of Novgorod
Novgorod
, was forced to flee to Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in 976 after his brother Yaropolk had murdered his other brother Oleg and conquered Rus\'
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Rostislav Vsevolodovich
ROSTISLAV VSEVOLODOVICH (Russian : Ростислав Всеволодович) (1070–1093) was the Prince of Pereyaslavl (1078–1093), son of Vsevolod I of Kiev , and half brother of Vladimir Monomakh . He fought at Stugna river against the Cumans and drowned while fleeing the battle. NOTES * ^ Basil Dmytryshyn, Medieval Russia: A sourcebook 850-1700, (Academic International Press, 2000), 60. This Russian history -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This Ukrainian history -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Galicia (Eastern Europe)
GALICIA (Ukrainian and Rusyn : Галичина, Halychyna; Polish : Galicja; Czech and Slovak : Halič; German : Galizien; Hungarian : Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Romanian : Galiția/Halici; Russian : Галиция, Galitsiya; Yiddish : גאַליציע‎, Galitsye) is a historical and geographic region in Central -Eastern Europe
Europe
, once a small Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
that straddled the modern-day border between Poland
Poland
and Ukraine
Ukraine
. The area, which is named after the medieval city of Halych
Halych
, was first mentioned in Hungarian historical chronicles in the year 1206 as Galiciæ
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Svyatopolk II Of Kiev
Out of wedlock: Mstislav With the first: Iaroslav Zbyslava Predslava With the second: Anna Maria Bryachislav Izyaslav FULL NAME Sviatopolk Iziaslavovich (Mikhail) DYNASTY Rurikid FATHER Iziaslav I SVIATOPOLK II IZIASLAVICH (1050 – April 16, 1113) was supreme ruler of the Kievan Rus for 20 years, from 1093 to 1113. He was not a popular prince, and his reign was marked by incessant rivalry with his cousin Vladimir Monomakh . Upon his death the Kievan citizens raised a rebellion against the Jewish merchants and Varangian officials who speculated in grain and salt. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Reign * 3 Marriage and children * 4 See also * 5 Footnotes * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFESviatopolk was the son of Iziaslav Iaroslavich by his concubine. Sviatopolk's Christian name was Michael. During his brother Iaropolk 's life, Sviatopolk was not regarded as a potential claimant to the Kievan throne
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Battle Of The Kalka River
The BATTLE OF THE KALKA RIVER (Russian : Битва на реке Калке, Ukrainian : Битва на річці Калка) was fought between the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
—whose armies were led by Jebe and Subutai
Subutai
the Valiant —and a coalition of several Rus' principalities, including Kiev
Kiev
and Galich , and the Cumans
Cumans
. They were under the joint command of Mstislav the Bold and Mstislav III of Kiev . The battle was fought on May 31, 1223 on the banks of the Kalka River in present-day Donetsk Oblast
Donetsk Oblast
, Ukraine, and ended in a Mongol
Mongol
victory
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Narymunt
NARIMANTAS or NARYMUNT (baptized Gleb, born in 1277 or just before 1300 (according to Wasilewski 1992) – 2 February 1348) was the second eldest son of Gediminas
Gediminas
, Grand Duke of Lithuania . During various periods of his life, he ruled Pinsk and Polatsk
Polatsk
. In 1333 he was invited by Novgorod
Novgorod
's nobles to rule and protect territories in the north, Ladoga , Oreshek
Oreshek
and Korela . He started the tradition of Lithuanian mercenary service north of Novgorod
Novgorod
on the Swedish border that lasted until Novgorod's fall to Moscow in 1477. About 1338, the Golden Horde took him as prisoner. The Muscovite ruler, Ivan Kalita , ransomed him from Tatars
Tatars
, keeping him as hostage in Moscow for a few years
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Gediminas
GEDIMINAS (c. 1275 – December 1341) was Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death. He is credited with founding this political entity and expanding its territory which, at the time of his death, spanned the area ranging from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to the Black Sea
Black Sea
. Also seen as one of the most significant individuals in early Lithuanian history , he was responsible for both building Vilnius
Vilnius
, the capital of Lithuania, and establishing a dynasty that can be traced to other European monarchies such as Poland , Hungary and Bohemia
Bohemia
. As part of his legacy, he gained a reputation for being a champion of paganism , who successfully diverted attempts to Christianize his country by skillful negotiations with the Pope
Pope
and other Christian rulers
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