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Principality Of Polotsk
The PRINCIPALITY OF POLOTSK, also known as the KINGDOM OF POLOTSK or the DUCHY OF POLOTSK (Belarusian : По́лацкае кня́ства; Russian : По́лоцкое кня́жество), was a medieval principality of the Early East Slavs
East Slavs
. The origin and date of state establishment is uncertain. The Russian chronicles mention Polotsk
Polotsk
being conquered by Vladimir the Great
Vladimir the Great
, and thereafter it became associated with the Rurik dynasty
Rurik dynasty
and Kievan Rus\' . The Principality
Principality
was supposedly established around the ancient town of Polotsk
Polotsk
(modern Polatsk, Belarus
Belarus
) by the tribal union of Krivichs
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Krivichs
The KRIVICHI (Belarusian : Крывічы, Kryvičý; IPA: Russian : Кривичи́; IPA: ) was one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries. They migrated to the mostly Finnic areas in the upper reaches of the Volga
Volga
, Dnieper , Western Dvina , areas south of the lower reaches of river Velikaya and parts of the Neman basin . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Modern uses of the name * 4 See also * 5 References ETYMOLOGYMany historians suggest that the name of the tribe probably stems from that of their legendary forefather Kriv, possibly a kniaz or a voivode . According to Max Vasmer
Max Vasmer
, this sobriquet was derived from the Slavic adjective krivoy ("crooked/twisted") due to some possible birth defect
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Varangian
The VARANGIANS ( Old Norse
Old Norse
: Væringjar; Greek : Βάραγγοι Varangoi, Βαριάγοι Variagoi) was the name given by Greeks
Greeks
and East Slavs
East Slavs
to Vikings
Vikings
, who between the 9th and 11th centuries ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus\' , settled among many rivers in territories of modern Ukraine, Belarus and Russia
Russia
and formed the Byzantine
Byzantine
Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
. According to the 12th century Kievan Primary Chronicle
Primary Chronicle
, a group of Varangians known as the Rus\' settled in Novgorod
Novgorod
in 862 under the leadership of Rurik
Rurik
. Before Rurik, the Rus' might have ruled an earlier hypothetical polity
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Kiev
KIEV (/ˈkiːɛf, -ɛv/ ) or KYIV (Ukrainian : Київ, Kyjiv ( listen ); Old East Slavic : Кыѥвъ, Kyjev; Russian : Киев, Kijev ) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine
Ukraine
, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River . The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974 (though higher estimated numbers have been cited in the press), making Kiev
Kiev
the 7th most populous city in Europe . Kiev
Kiev
is an important industrial, scientific , educational, and cultural centre of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions and world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and highly developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro . The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi , one of its four legendary founders (see Name , below)
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Sviatoslav I Of Kiev
SVIATOSLAV I IGOREVICH ( Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
: С~тославъ / Свѧтославъ Игорєвичь, Sventoslavŭ / Svantoslavŭ Igorevičǐ; Old Norse
Old Norse
: Sveinald Ingvarsson) (c. 942 – March 972), also spelled SVYATOSLAV was a Grand prince of Kiev
Kiev
famous for his persistent campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe, Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire . He also conquered numerous East Slavic tribes, defeated the Alans
Alans
and attacked the Volga Bulgars , and at times was allied with the Pechenegs and Magyars . His decade-long reign over the Kievan Rus\' was marked by rapid expansion into the Volga River
Volga River
valley, the Pontic steppe , and the Balkans
Balkans

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Early East Slavs
The EARLY SLAVS were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages (approximately the fifth to the tenth centuries) in Eastern Europe and in Central Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages . The first written use of the name "Slavs" dates to the sixth century, when the Slavic tribes inhabited a large portion of Central and Eastern Europe . By that century, native Iranian ethnic groups (the Scythians , Sarmatians , and Alans ) had been absorbed by the region's Slavic population. Over the next two centuries, the Slavs expanded southwest toward the Balkans and the Alps and northeast towards the Volga River . Beginning in the ninth century, the Slavs gradually converted to Christianity (both Byzantine Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism)
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Beloozero
BELOZERSK (Russian : Белозе́рск) is a town and the administrative center of Belozersky District in Vologda Oblast
Vologda Oblast
, Russia
Russia
, located on the southern bank of Lake Beloye , from which it takes the name, 214 kilometers (133 mi) northwest of Vologda
Vologda
, the administrative center of the oblast . Population: 9,616 (2010 Census ); 10,975 (2002 Census ); 12,352 (1989 Census ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Administrative and municipal status * 3 Climate * 4 Economy * 4.1 Industry * 4.2 Transportation * 5 Culture and recreation * 6 References * 6.1 Notes * 6.2 Sources HISTORYKnown as BELOOZERO (Белоо́зеро, lit
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Primary Chronicle
The TALE OF PAST YEARS (Old East Slavic : Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or PRIMARY CHRONICLE is a history of Kievan Rus\' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev
Kiev
about 1113. The work is considered to be a fundamental source in the interpretation of the history of the Eastern Slavs . CONTENTS* 1 Three editions * 1.1 First * 1.2 Second * 1.3 Third * 2 Two manuscripts * 3 Assessment * 4 See also * 5 Further reading * 6 External links THREE EDITIONSFIRSTTradition long regarded the original compilation as the work of a monk named Nestor (c. 1056 – c. 1114); hence scholars spoke of Nestor's Chronicle or of Nestor's manuscript. His compilation has not survived
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Rurik
RURIK (also RIURIK; Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
Рюрикъ Rjurikŭ, from Old Norse
Old Norse
Hrøríkʀ ; c. 830 – 879), according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle
Primary Chronicle
, was a Varangian chieftain of the Rus\' who in the year 862 gained control of Ladoga , and built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod
Novgorod
. He is the founder of the Rurik
Rurik
Dynasty
Dynasty
, which ruled the Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and its successor states, including the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
, until the 17th century
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Murom
MUROM (Russian : Муром, IPA: ; Old Norse
Old Norse
: Moramar) is a historical city in Vladimir Oblast , Russia
Russia
, which sprawls along the left bank of the Oka River . Population: 116,075 (2010 Census ); 126,901 (2002 Census ); 124,229 (1989 Census ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Administrative and municipal status * 3 Sights * 4 International relations * 4.1 Twin towns — Sister cities * 5 Notable people * 6 References * 6.1 Notes * 6.2 Sources HISTORYIn the 9th century CE, the city marked the easternmost settlement of the East Slavs
East Slavs
in the land of the Finno-Ugric people called Muromians . The Primary Chronicle mentions it as early as 862. It is thus one of the oldest cities in Russia
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Vladimir I Of Kiev
VLADIMIR THE GREAT (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Old East Slavic : Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove
Berestove
) was a prince of Novgorod
Novgorod
, grand prince of Kiev
Kiev
, and ruler of Kievan Rus\' from 980 to 1015. Vladimir's father was prince Sviatoslav of the Rurik dynasty
Rurik dynasty
. After the death of his father in 972, Vladimir, who was then prince of Novgorod
Novgorod
, was forced to flee to Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in 976 after his brother Yaropolk had murdered his other brother Oleg and conquered Rus\'
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Yaropolk I Of Kiev
YAROPOLK I SVIATOSLAVICH (c. 958–960 – 11 June? 980) (East Slavic : Ярополк I Святославич, sometimes transliterated as Iaropolk) was a young and rather enigmatic ruler of Kiev between 972 and 980. He was the oldest son of Svyatoslav. His royal title is traditionally translated as "Prince ". CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Purported baptism * 3 Marriage and issues * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links LIFEYaropolk was given Kiev by his father Sviatoslav I , who left on a military campaign against the Danube Bulgars . Soon after Svyatoslav's death, however, civil war began between Yaropolk and his brothers. According to one chronicle , Yaropolk's brother Oleg killed Lyut, the son of Yaropolk's chief adviser and military commander Sveneld . In an act of revenge and at the insistence of Sveneld, Yaropolk went to war against his brother and killed him
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History Of The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764)
HISTORY OF THE POLISH–LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH (1648–1764) covers a period in the history of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , from the time their joint state became the theater of wars and invasions fought on a great scale in the middle of the 17th century, to the time just before the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski , the last king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth . From the 17th century, the nobles\' democracy , experienced devastating wars and fell into internal disorder and then anarchy , and as a result declined. The once powerful Commonwealth had become vulnerable to internal warfare and foreign intervention. In 1648 the Cossack Khmelnytsky Uprising engulfed the south and east of the vast Polish–Lithuanian state, and was soon followed by a Swedish invasion , which raged through core Polish lands. Warfare with the Cossacks and Russia left Ukraine divided; the eastern part, lost by the Commonwealth, became a dependency of the Tsardom of Russia
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History Of The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–95)
The HISTORY OF THE POLISH–LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH (1764–1795) is concerned with the final decades of existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth . The period, during which the declining state pursued wide-ranging reforms and was subjected to three partitions by the neighboring powers, coincides with the election and reign of the federation 's last king, Stanisław August Poniatowski . During the later part of the 18th century, the Commonwealth attempted fundamental internal reforms. The reform activity provoked hostile reaction and eventually military response on the part of the surrounding states. The second half of the century brought improved economy and significant growth of the population. The most populous capital city of Warsaw replaced Danzig (Gdańsk) as the leading trade center, and the role of the more prosperous urban strata was increasing
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Polish–lithuanian Commonwealth
The POLISH–LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH, formally the CROWN OF THE KINGDOM OF POLAND AND THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA, after 1791 the COMMONWEALTH OF POLAND, was a dualistic state , a bi-confederation of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duke
Duke
of Lithuania
Lithuania
. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. At its peak in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth spanned some 450,000 square miles (1,200,000 km2) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million
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Partitions Of Poland
The PARTITIONS OF POLAND were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
that took place towards the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland
Poland
for 123 years. The partitions were conducted by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and Habsburg Austria , which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures. The First Partition of Poland was decided on August 5, 1772. Two decades later, Russian and Prussian troops entered the Commonwealth again and the Second Partition was signed on January 23, 1793. Austria did not participate in the Second Partition
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