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Prince Rupert Of The Rhine
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
KG PC FRS (17 December 1619 – 29 November 1682) was a noted German soldier, admiral, scientist, sportsman, colonial governor and amateur artist during the 17th century. He first came to prominence as a Cavalier
Cavalier
cavalry commander during the English Civil War.[a] Rupert was a younger son of the German prince Frederick V, Elector Palatine and his wife Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England. Thus Rupert was the nephew of King Charles I of England, who made him Duke of Cumberland
Duke of Cumberland
and Earl of Holderness, and the first cousin of King Charles II of England. His sister Electress Sophia was the mother of George I of Great Britain. Prince Rupert had a varied career
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Rupert, King Of Germany
Rupert of the Palatinate (German: Ruprecht von der Pfalz; 5 May 1352 – 18 May 1410), a member of the House of Wittelsbach, was Elector Palatine from 1398 (as Rupert III) and King of Germany
King of Germany
(rex Romanorum) from 1400 until his death.Contents1 Life 2 Family and children 3 Legacy 4 Ancestors 5 See also 6 ReferencesLife[edit] Rupert was born at Amberg
Amberg
in the Upper Palatinate, the son of Elector Palatine Rupert II and Beatrice of Aragon, daughter of King Peter II of Sicily. Rupert's great-granduncle was the Wittelsbach emperor Louis IV
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Privateer
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.[1] The commission, also known as a letter of marque, empowers the person to carry on all forms of hostility permissible at sea by the usages of war, including attacking foreign vessels during wartime and taking them as prizes. Historically captured ships were subject to condemnation and sale under prize law, with the proceeds divided between the privateer sponsors, shipowners, captains and crew. A percentage share usually went to the issuer of the commission. Since robbery under arms was once common to seaborne trade, all merchant ships were already armed. During war, naval resources were auxiliary to operations on land so privateering was a way of subsidizing state power by mobilizing armed ships and sailors. In practice the legality and status of privateers historically has often been vague
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Dutch Republic
The Hague
The Hague
(de facto)Languages Dutch, Zeelandic, West Flemish, Dutch Low Saxon, West FrisianReligion Dutch ReformedGovernment Confederative republicStadtholder •  1581–1584 William I (first) •  1751–1795 William V (last)Grand Pensionary •  1581–1585 Paulus Buys
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Eighty Years' War
Peace of Münster Spain
Spain
recognises the independence of the Dutch Republic Spain
Spain
retains the Southern NetherlandsBelligerents United Provinces  England  France Spanish EmpireCommanders and leaders William the Silent † Maurice of Orange Frederic
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Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
(historically Romanorum Imperator " Emperor
Emperor
of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(800-1806 CE, from Charlemagne
Charlemagne
to Francis II). The title was almost without interruption held in conjunction with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany.[1][2][3] From an autocracy in Carolingian
Carolingian
times the title evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors. The Holy Roman Emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right by Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
rulers in Europe, and he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs
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Thirty Years' War
Peace of Westphalia Protestant
Protestant
princes allowed to continue religious practices Decline of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
mainly, although not exclusively, in northern Europe[9] Habsburg
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Cavalry
Cavalry
Cavalry
(from French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry
Cavalry
were historically the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, horseman, dragoon or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry
Infantry
who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. Cavalry
Cavalry
had the advantage of improved mobility, and a man fighting from horseback also had the advantages of greater height, speed, and inertial mass over an opponent on foot
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Bristol
Urban Chris Skidmore
Chris Skidmore
(Con) Jack Lopresti
Jack Lopresti
(Con)Area • City and county 40 sq mi (110 km2)Elevation[1] 36&#
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Louis XIV Of France
Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the God-Given (Louis Dieudonné), Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France
King of France
from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting at the age of 4, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history.[1][2] In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power.[3] Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.[4] An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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Anglo-Dutch Wars
War
War
is a state of armed conflict between states or societies. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. An absence of war is usually called "peace". Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general.[1] Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature,[2] others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances.[3] The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War
War
II, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests[4] at up to 60 million
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George I Of Great Britain
George I (George Louis; German: Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[a] was King of Great Britain
King of Great Britain
and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
(Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
from 1698 until his death. George was born in Hanover
Hanover
and inherited the titles and lands of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Brunswick-Lüneburg
from his father and uncles. A succession of European wars expanded his German domains during his lifetime, and in 1708 he was ratified as prince-elector of Hanover. At the age of 54, after the death of his second cousin Anne, Queen of Great Britain, George ascended the British throne
British throne
as the first monarch of the House of Hanover
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Interregnum (England)
The Interregnum was the period between the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649 and the arrival of his son Charles II in London on 29 May 1660 which marked the start of the Restoration. During the Interregnum England was under various forms of republican government (see Commonwealth of England; this article describes other facets of the Interregnum).Contents1 Politics 2 Life during the Interregnum 3 Jews in England 4 Radicals vs conservatives4.1 Levellers 4.2 Diggers 4.3 Religious sects 4.4 Conservatives5 Historical analysis 6 Notes 7 ReferencesPolitics[edit] Main article: Commonwealth of England The politics of the period were dominated by the wishes of the Grandees (Senior Officers) of the New Model Army
New Model Army
and their civilian supporters
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Parliament
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative, elected body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. The term is similar to the idea of a senate, synod or congress, and is commonly used in countries that are current or former monarchies, a form of government with a monarch as the head. Some contexts restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is also used to describe the legislature in some presidential systems (e.g. the French parliament), even where it is not in the official name. Historically, parliaments included various kinds of deliberative, consultative, and judicial assemblies, e.g
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Royal Navy
The Royal Navy
Navy
(RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War
against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy
Navy
traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service. From the middle decades of the 17th century, and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy
Navy
vied with the Dutch Navy
Navy
and later with the French Navy
Navy
for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy
Navy
during the Second World War
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Doctrine
Doctrine (from Latin: doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or belief system. The Greek analogue is the etymology of catechism.[1] Often doctrine specifically suggests a body of religious principles as it is promulgated by a church, but not necessarily; doctrine is also used to refer to a principle of law, in the common law traditions, established through a history of past decisions, such as the doctrine of self-defense, or the principle of fair use, or the more narrowly applicable first-sale doctrine
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