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Prince-Bishopric Of Warmia
The Prince-Bishopric of Warmia[1] (Polish: Biskupie Księstwo Warmińskie,[2] German: Fürstbistum Ermland)[3] was a semi-independent ecclesiastical state, ruled by the incumbent ordinary of the Ermland/Warmia see and comprising one third of the then diocesan area. The other two thirds of the diocese were under the secular rule of Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights
Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights
(Teutonic Prussia) (till 1525, and Ducal Prussia
Ducal Prussia
thereafter)
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Roman Catholic Archdiocese Of Warmia
The word diocese (/ˈdaɪəsɪs, -siːs, -siːz/)[a] is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration". When now used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to an administrative territorial entity.[2] In the Western Church, the district is under the supervision of a bishop (who may have assistant bishops to help him or her) and is divided into parishes under the care of priests; but in the Eastern Church, the word denotes the area under the jurisdiction of a patriarch and the bishops under his jurisdiction administer parishes.[2] This structure of church governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese. It can also be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese
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King Of Poland
Poland
Poland
was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). During the latter period, a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th–18th centuries). The birth of Poland
Poland
as an independent nation coincides with the ascension of Duke Mieszko I[4] and adoption of Christianity
Christianity
under the authority of Rome in the year 966. He was succeeded by his son, Bolesław I the Brave, who greatly expanded the boundaries of the Polish state and ruled as the first king in 1025. The following centuries gave rise to the mighty Piast dynasty, consisting of both kings such as Mieszko II Lambert, Przemysł II
Przemysł II
or Władysław I the Elbow-high and dukes like Bolesław III Wrymouth
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Teutonic Knights
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem[2] (official names: Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
was formed to aid Christians
Christians
on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land
Holy Land
and to establish hospitals
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Northern Crusades
After 1291Smyrniote 1343–1351 Alexandrian 1365 Savoyard 1366 Barbary 1390 Nicopolis 1396 Varna 1443 Portuguese 1481Northern Crusades
Crusades
(1147–1410)Wendish 1147 Swedish1150 1249 1293Livonian 1198–1290 Prussian 1217–1274 Lithuanian 1283–1410Popular crusadesPeople's 1096 Children's 1212 Shepherds' 1251 Poor 1309 Shepherds' 1320Against ChristiansBosnian 1235–1241 Albigensian 1209–1229 Aragonese 1284/5 Despenser's 1382/3 Hussite 1419–1434 Reconquista
Reconquista
(718–1492) Book:The Crusades Portal:CrusadesThe Northern Crusades[1] or Baltic Crusades[2] were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea
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Cathedral Chapter
Corpus Juris CanoniciDecretist Regulæ Juris Decretals of Gregory IXDecretalistDecretum Gratiani Extravagantes Liber SeptimusAncient Church OrdersDidache The Apostolic ConstitutionsCanons of the ApostlesCollections of ancient canonsCollectiones canonum Dionysianae Collectio canonum quadripartita Collectio canonum Quesnelliana Collectio canonum WigorniensisOtherPseudo-Isidorian Decretals Benedictus Deus (Pius IV) Contractum trinius Defect of Birth Jus exclusivae Papal appointmentOriental lawCode of Canons of the Eastern Churches Eastern Canonical Reforms of Pius XII Nomocanon ArcheparchyEparchyLiturgical lawEcclesia Dei Mysterii Paschalis Sacrosanctum conciliumMusicam sacramSummorum Pontificum Tra le sollecitudiniSacramental lawCanon 844 Ex opere operato Omnium in mentem Valid but illicitHoly OrdersImpediment (canon law)Abstemius


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Teutonic Order
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem[2] (official names: Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
was formed to aid Christians
Christians
on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land
Holy Land
and to establish hospitals
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Golden Bull
A golden bull or chrysobull was a decree issued by Byzantine Emperors and later by monarchs in Europe during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance, most notably by the Holy Roman Emperors. The term was originally coined for the golden seal (a bulla aurea), attached to the decree, but came to be applied to the entire decree. Such decrees were known as golden bulls in western Europe and chrysobullos logos, or chrysobulls, in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(χρυσός, chrysos, being Greek for gold). For nearly eight hundred years, they were issued unilaterally, without obligations on the part of the other party or parties. However, this eventually proved disadvantageous as the Byzantines sought to restrain the efforts of foreign powers to undermine the empire
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Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles IV (Czech: Karel IV., German: Karl IV., Latin: Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378[1]), born Wenceslaus,[2] was a King of Bohemia
Bohemia
and the first King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
to also become Holy Roman Emperor. He was a member of the House of Luxembourg
House of Luxembourg
from his father's side and the House of Přemyslid
House of Přemyslid
from his mother's side, which he emphasised, because it gave him two saints as direct ancestors. He was the eldest son and heir of King John of Bohemia, who died at the Battle of Crécy
Battle of Crécy
on 26 August 1346. His mother, Elizabeth of Bohemia, was the sister of King Wenceslas III, the last of the male Přemyslid rulers of Bohemia. Charles inherited the County of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
from his father and was elected king of the Kingdom of Bohemia
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Bishopric Of Culm
The Bishopric of Culm (German: Bistum Culm; Polish: Diecezja chełmińska) was a Roman Catholic diocese in Chełmno Land
Chełmno Land
(Culm land), founded in medieval Prussia in 1243 and disbanded in 1992.[1][2]Contents1 History 2 List of Bishops of Culm 3 See also 4 Notes and references 5 Sources and external linksHistory[edit]It was founded in 1243 by the papal legate Willi
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Bishopric Of Pomesania
The Bishopric of Pomesania
Pomesania
(German: Bistum Pomesanien; Polish: Diecezja pomezańska) was a Catholic diocese in the Prussian regions of Pomesania
Pomesania
and Pogesania, in northern modern Poland until the 16th century, then shortly a Lutheran
Lutheran
diocese, and became a Latin titular see.Contents1 Catholic diocese1.1 Catholic resident bishops 1.2 Catholic Apostolic administrators 1.3 Latin titular see2 Lutheran
Lutheran
bishopric 3 Sources and external linksCatholic diocese[edit] It was founded as one of four Roman Catholic dioceses in Prussia in 1243 by the papal legate William of Modena. The bishops, whose seat was Riesenburg (Prabuty), ruled one third of diocesan territory as his temporality. The diocesan cathedral chapter met in the fortified cathedral of Marienwerder (Kwidzyn)
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Bishopric Of Samland
The Bishopric of Samland (German: Bistum Samland) was a bishopric in Samland (Sambia) in medieval Prussia. It was founded as a Roman Catholic diocese in 1243 by papal legate William of Modena. Its seat was Königsberg, until 1523 the episcopal residence was in Fischhausen. The bishopric became Lutheran in the 16th century during the Protestant Reformation. It was dissolved and merged into the Bishopric of Pomesania
Bishopric of Pomesania
after 1577. Bishops of Samland[edit]Dietrich I. 1252–1254 Heinrich I. von Streitberg 1254–1274 Hermann von Köln 1274–1276, † 1287 Christian von Mühlhausen 1276–1295 Siegfried von Regenstein 1295–1318 Vacant Johann I. von Clare 1320–1344 Johann II. von Bludau 1344–1358 (Jakob von Kulm 1344–1354) Bartholomäus von Radam 1354–1378 Thilo von Marburg 1378–1386 Heinrich II. Kuwal 1387–1395 Heinrich III. von Seefeld 1395–1414 Heinrich IV. von Schanenburg 1415–1416 Johann II
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Personal Union
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.[1] A real union, by contrast, will involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch.[2] Personal unions can arise for several reasons, ranging from coincidence (a woman who is already married to a king becomes queen regnant, and their child inherits the crown of both countries; the King
King
of one country inherits the crown of another country) to virtual annexation (where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings)
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William Of Modena
William of Modena (c. 1184 – 31 March 1251), also known as William of Sabina, Guglielmo de Chartreaux, Guglielmo de Savoy, Guillelmus, was an Italian clergyman and papal diplomat. He was frequently appointed a legate, or papal ambassador by the popes Honorius III
Honorius III
and Gregory IX, especially in Livonia
Livonia
in the 1220s and in the Prussian questions of the 1240s. Eventually he resigned his see to devote himself to these diplomatic issues. On 28 May 1244 he was created Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina
Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina
by Pope Innocent IV
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Frederick II Of Prussia
Frederick II (German: Friedrich; 24 January 1712 – 17 August 1786) was King of Prussia
King of Prussia
from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
king.[4] His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment in Prussia, and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. Frederick was the last titled King in Prussia
King in Prussia
and declared himself King of Prussia
King of Prussia
after achieving full sovereignty for all historical Prussian lands. Prussia
Prussia
had greatly increased its territories and became a leading military power in Europe under his rule
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Königsberg
Königsberg
Königsberg
(/ˈkɜːrnɪɡzˌbɜːrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈkøːnɪçsˌbɛɐ̯k]) is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia. Originally a Sambian
Sambian
or Old Prussian
Old Prussian
city, it later belonged to the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, the Duchy of Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and Germany
Germany
until 1946. After being largely destroyed in World War II
World War II
by Allied bombing and Soviet forces and annexed by the Soviet Union thereafter, the city was renamed Kaliningrad. Few traces of the former Königsberg
Königsberg
remain today. The literal meaning of Königsberg
Königsberg
is 'King’s Mountain'
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