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Primary Sources
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study. It serves as an original source of information about the topic. Similar definitions can be used in library science, and other areas of scholarship, although different fields have somewhat different definitions. In journalism, a primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation, or a document written by such a person[1]. Primary sources are distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources
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Primary Sector
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing. A company in a primary industry can also be involved in turning natural resources into products. Primary industry tends to make up a larger portion of the economy of developing countries than they do for developed countries. See also service industry, secondary industry. The primary sector is concerned with the extraction of raw materials
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Internet Archive
Coordinates: 37°46′56″N 122°28′18″W / 37.7823°N 122.4716°W / 37.7823; -122.4716Internet ArchiveType of business 501(c)(3) nonprofitType of siteDigital libraryAvailable in EnglishFounded May 12, 1996; 21 years ago (1996-05-12)[1][2]Headquarters Richmond District San Francisco, California, U.S.Chairman Brewster KahleServices Archive-It, Open Library, Wayback Machine
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Natural Sciences
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, space science, chemistry, and earth science. These branches of natural science may be further divided into more specialized branches (also known as fields). In Western society's analytic tradition, the empirical sciences and especially natural sciences use tools from formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, converting information about nature into measurements which can be explained as clear statements of the "laws of nature"
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Libraries
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.[1] It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both.[2] A library's collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC
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Museum
A museum (/mjuːˈziːəm/ mew-ZEE-əm; plural musea or museums) is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary.[1] The largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities, towns and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public
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Historical Societies
This is a partial List of historical and heritage societies from around the world. The sections provided are not mutually exclusive. Many historical societies websites are their museums' websites. List is organized by location and later by specialization. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness
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Huntington Library
The Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens (or The Huntington[1]) is a collections-based educational and research institution established by Henry E. Huntington (1850–1927) and located in Los Angeles County in San Marino, California. In addition to the library, the institution houses an extensive art collection with a focus in 18th- and 19th-century European art and 17th- to mid-20th-century American art
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Chronicling America
Chronicling America, begun in 2005, is a database and companion website produced by the United States National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP), a partnership between the Library of Congress and the National Endowment for the Humanities, maintained by the LOC. The Chronicling America website contains digitized newspaper pages and information about historic newspapers to place the primary sources in context and support future research. The project is described as "long-term effort to develop an Internet-based, searchable database of U.S
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National Archives And Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.[6] NARA is officially responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential proclamations and executive orders, and federal regulations
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Digital Public Library Of America
The Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) is a US project aimed at providing public access to digital holdings in order to create a large-scale public digital library. It officially launched on April 18, 2013, after 2.5 years of development.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 Board of directors 3 History3.1 2012 Project Steering Committee 3.2 Critiques 3.3 Projects Discussed in Planning Phase4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksOverview[edit] The DPLA is a discovery tool, or union catalog, for public domain and openly licensed content held by the United States' archives, libraries, museums, and other cultural heritage institutions.[1] It was started by Harvard University's Berkman Center for Internet & Society in 2010, with financial support from the Alfred P
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The National Archives (United Kingdom)
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.[2] Its parent department is the Department for Culture, Media and Sport of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.[3] It is the official archive of the UK government and for England and Wales; and "guardian of some of the nation's most iconic documents, dating back more than 1,000 years."[4] There are separate national archives for Scotland (the National Records of Scotland) and Northern Ireland (the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland). TNA was formerly four separate organisations: the Public Record Office (PRO), the Historical Manuscripts Commission, the Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) and Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO). The Public Record Office still exists as a legal entity, as the enabling legislation has not been modified,[5][6] and documents held by the institution thus continue to be cited by many scholars as part of the PRO.[7] Since 2008, TNA has also hosted the f
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Pompeii
Pompeii was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples, in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area, was mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. Archaeologists believe that the town was founded in the 7th or 6th century BC by the Osci or Oscans. It came under the domination of Rome in the 4th century BC, and was conquered and became a Roman colony in 80 BC after it joined an unsuccessful rebellion against the Roman Republic. By the time of its destruction, 160 years later, its population was estimated at 11,000 people, and the city had a complex water system, an amphitheatre, a gymnasium, and a port. The eruption destroyed the city, killing its inhabitants and burying it under tons of ash
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National Archives Of Scotland
The National Archives of Scotland (NAS) are the national archives of Scotland, based in Edinburgh. The NAS claims to have one of the most varied collection of archives in Europe. It is the main archive for sources of the history of Scotland as an independent state (see Kingdom of Scotland), her role in the British Isles and the links between Scotland and many other countries over the centuries. The NAS changed its name from the Scottish Record Office on 7 January 1999 and is both an associated department and Executive Agency of the Scottish Government,[1] headed by the Keeper of the Records of Scotland. The Agency is responsible to the Scottish Minister for Europe, External Affairs and Culture
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Europeana
Europeana.eu is the EU digital platform for cultural heritage.[2] Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci, Girl with a Pearl Earring by Johannes Vermeer, the works of Charles Darwin and Isaac Newton and the music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart are some of the highlights on Europeana. More than 3,000 institutions across Europe have contributed to Europeana.[3] These range from major international names like the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the British Library and the Louvre to regional archives and local museums from every member of the European Union.[4] Together, their assembled collections let users explore Europe's cultural and scientific heritage from prehistory to the modern day.Contents1 History 2 Function 3 Strategy 4 Organisation 5 Europeana projects 6 Financing 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit] The catalyst for Europeana was a letter sent by Jacques Chirac, President of France, together with the premiers of Germany, Spain, Italy, Poland and Hungary to
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