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Prenasalized Consonant
Prenasalized consonants are phonetic sequences of a nasal and an obstruent (or occasionally a non-nasal sonorant such as [ɺ]) that behave phonologically like single consonants. The primary reason for considering them to be single consonants, rather than clusters as in English finger or member, lies in their behaviour; however, there may also be phonetic correlates which distinguish prenasalized consonants from clusters. Because of the additional difficulty in both articulation and timing, prenasalized fricatives and sonorants are not as common as prenasalized stops or affricates, and the presence of the former implies the latter.[1] In most languages, when a prenasalized consonant is described as "voiceless", it is only the oral portion that is voiceless, and the nasal portion is modally voiced. Thus, a language may have "voiced" [ᵐb ⁿd ᶯɖ ᶮɟ ᵑɡ] and "voiceless" [ᵐp ⁿt ᶯʈ ᶮc ᵑk]
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Phonetics
Phonetics (pronounced /fəˈnɛtɪks/) is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.[1] It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status
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Voiced Dental Stop
The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar stops is ⟨d⟩ (although the symbol ⟨d̪⟩ can be used to distinguish the dental stop, and ⟨d̠⟩ the postalveolar), and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is d.Contents1 Features 2 Occurrence2.1 Dental or denti-alveolar 2.2 Alveolar 2.3 Variable3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the voiced alveolar stop:Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract
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Buckwheat
Buckwheat
Buckwheat
( Fagopyrum
Fagopyrum
esculentum), also known as common buckwheat, Japanese buckwheat and silverhull buckwheat,[2] is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop. A related and more bitter species, Fagopyrum
Fagopyrum
tataricum, a domesticated food plant common in Asia, but not as common in Europe
Europe
or North America, is also referred to as buckwheat. Despite the name, buckwheat is not related to wheat, as it is not a grass. Instead, buckwheat is related to sorrel, knotweed, and rhubarb. Because its seeds are eaten and rich in complex carbohydrates, it is referred to as a pseudocereal
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Liquor
A distilled beverage, spirit, liquor, hard liquor or hard alcohol is an alcoholic beverage produced by distillation of liquid drinks made with grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation. The distillation process purifies the liquid and removes diluting components like water, for the purpose of increasing its proportion of alcohol content (commonly expressed as alcohol by volume, ABV).[1] As distilled beverages contain significantly more alcohol, they are considered "harder" – in North America, the term hard liquor is used to distinguish distilled beverages from undistilled ones. As examples, this term does not include beverages such as beer, wine, mead, sake, or cider, as they are fermented but not distilled. These all have a relatively low alcohol content, typically less than 15%. Brandy
Brandy
is a spirit produced by the distillation of wine, and has an ABV of over 35%
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Hmong–Mien
The Hmong–Mien (also known as Miao–Yao) languages are a highly tonal language family of southern China
China
and northern Southeast Asia. They are spoken in mountainous areas of southern China, including Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, and Hubei
Hubei
provinces, where its speakers have been relegated to being "hill people", whereas the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
have settled the more fertile river valleys. Within the last 300–400 years, the Hmong and some Mien people
Mien people
have migrated to Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Burma. As a result of the Indochina Wars, many left Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
for Australia, the United States, French Guiana, and other countries
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Japanese Language
Japanese (日本語, Nihongo, [ɲihoŋɡo] or [ɲihoŋŋo] ( listen)) is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period
Heian period
(794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese
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Guaraní Language
Guarani (/ˈɡwɑːrəniː/ or /ɡwærəˈniː/),[3] specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ [aʋãɲẽˈʔẽ] 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America
South America
that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani
Tupi–Guarani
family[4] of the Tupian languages
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Indo-Aryan Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Dhivehi Language
ދިވެހި, dhivehi ދިވެހިބަސް, dhivehi-basNative toThe Maldives Minicoy Island
Minicoy Island
(Maliku)Native speakers340,000 (2012)[1]Language familyIndo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanSouthern ZoneInsular IndicMaldivianEarly formEluWriting systemThaana ( Dhives Akuru
Dhives Akuru
until the 18th century)Official statusOfficial language in MaldivesRegulated by Dhivehi AcademyLanguage codesISO 639-1 dvISO 639-2 divISO 639-3 divGlottolog dhiv1236[2]This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Voiced Retroflex Stop
The voiced retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɖ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of a d, the letter that is used for the corresponding alveolar consonant. Many Indian languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between plain and murmured (breathy voice) [ɖ].Contents1 Features 2 Occurrence 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the voiced retroflex stop:Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract
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Sri Lankan Malay Language
Sri Lankan Creole Malay (also known as Sri Lankan Malay and Bahasa Melayu) is an Austronesian creole language formed through a mixture of Sinhala and Tamil with Malay. Sri Lankan Malay is a restructured vernacular of Malay base spoken by at least five different communities in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
which has evolved to be significantly divergent from other varieties of Malay due to intimate contact with the dominant languages of Sinhala and Tamil. Sri Lankan Creole Malay originated as a means of communication between the incoming Malays and the Sri Lankan people in the 13th century.[3] It is now exclusively spoken by Sri Lankan Malays, whose ancestry include exiles and labourers brought by the Dutch and British, as well as soldiers in the Dutch garrison. They now constitute 0.3% of the Sri Lankan population, some 46,000. Sri Lankan Malay survives mostly through oral contact
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Yi Script
The Yi script
Yi script
(Yi: ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma [nɔ̄sū bū̠mā]; Chinese: 彝文; pinyin: Yí wén) is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi languages; Classical Yi (an ideogram script), and the later Yi Syllabary
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Syllabification
Syllabification (/sɪˌlæbɪfɪˈkeɪʃən/) or syllabication (/sɪˌlæbɪˈkeɪʃən/) is the separation of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksOverview[edit] The written separation into syllables is usually marked by a hyphen when using English orthography (e.g., syl-la-ble) and with a period when transcribing the actually spoken syllables in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) (e.g., [ˈsɪl.ə.bᵊɫ]). For presentation purposes, typographers may use an interpunct ( Unicode
Unicode
character U+00B7, e.g., syl·la·ble), or a special-purpose "hyphenation point" (U+2027, e.g., syl‧la‧ble)
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Fijian Language
Fijian (Na Vosa Vakaviti) is an Austronesian language of the Malayo-Polynesian family spoken by some 350,000–450,000 ethnic Fijians
Fijians
as a native language. The 2013 Constitution established Fijian as an official language of Fiji, along with English and Hindi, and there is discussion about establishing it as the "national language", though English and Hindi
Hindi
would remain official
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Melanesia
Melanesia
Melanesia
(UK: /ˌmɛləˈniːziə/; US: /ˌmɛləˈniːʒə/) is a subregion of Oceania
Oceania
extending from New Guinea
New Guinea
island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji. The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea
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