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Prehistoric Egypt
The prehistory of Egypt
Egypt
spans the period from earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh, Narmer
Narmer
for some egyptologists, Hor-Aha
Hor-Aha
for others, (also known as Menes). This Predynastic era is traditionally equivalent to the final part of the Neolithic
Neolithic
period beginning c. 6000 BC, and corresponds to the Naqada III period. The dates of the Predynastic period were first defined before widespread archaeological excavation of Egypt
Egypt
took place, and recent finds indicating very gradual Predynastic development have led to controversy over when exactly the Predynastic period ended
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Paleolithic
The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
or Palaeolithic /ˌpæliːəˈlɪθɪk/ is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.[1] It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
c. 11,650 cal BP.[2] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is followed in Europe by the Mesolithic, although the date of the transition varies geographically by several thousand years. During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals.[3] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools
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Thirtieth Dynasty Of Egypt
The Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt
(notated Dynasty XXX, alternatively 30th Dynasty or Dynasty 30) is usually classified as the fifth Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Late Period. It was founded after the overthrow of Nefaarud II in 380 BC by Nectanebo I, and was disestablished upon the invasion of Egypt by the Shah
Shah
of Persia, Artaxerxes III
Artaxerxes III
in 343 BC. This is the final native dynasty of ancient Egypt; after the deposition of Nectanebo II, Egypt entered a period of domination by foreign powers lasting nearly two-and-a-half millennia.Contents1 History 2 Pharaohs of the 30th Dynasty 3 Timeline of the 30th Dynasty 4 Family tree 5 ReferencesHistory[edit]Dynasties of Ancient EgyptAll years are BCEarlyFirst Dynasty I c
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Nile Delta
Coordinates: 30°54′N 31°7′E / 30.900°N 31.117°E / 30.900; 31.117 NASA
NASA
satellite photograph of the Nile
Nile
Delta (shown in false color)The Nile
Nile
Delta at night as seen from the ISS in October 2010.The Nile
Nile
Delta (Arabic: دلتا النيل‎ Delta n-Nīl or simply الدلتا ed-Delta) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt
Egypt
(Lower Egypt) where the Nile
Nile
River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria
Alexandria
in the west to Port Said
Port Said
in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coastline—and is a rich agricultural region
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Nile River
The Nile
Nile
(Arabic: النيل‎, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew: הַיְאוֹר‬, Ha-Ye'or or הַשִׁיחוֹר‬, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world,[1] though some sources cite the Amazon River
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Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Neolithic
Neolithic
(/ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen)[1]) was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world[2] and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
or The New Stone Age, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the " Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution"
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Menes
Menes
Menes
(/ˈmiːniːz/; Ancient Egyptian: mnj, probably pronounced */maˈnij/;[5] Ancient Greek: Μήνης)[4] was a pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period of ancient Egypt credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt
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Hor-Aha
Hor-Aha
Hor-Aha
(or Aha or Horus
Horus
Aha) is considered the second pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt
First Dynasty of Egypt
by some Egyptologists, others consider him the first one and corresponding to Menes
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Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Pharaoh
(/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/, /fɛr.oʊ/[1][2] or /fær.oʊ/;[2] Coptic: ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 30 BCE,[3] although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Nesu Bety, and the Nebty name. The Golden Horus
Horus
and Nomen and prenomen titles were later added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator
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Early Modern Period
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age (c. 1500), known as the Middle Ages, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c
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Tulunids
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editThe Tulunids
Tulunids
(Arabic: الطولونيون‎), were a dynasty of Turkic origin[4] and were the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt, as well as much of Syria. They remained independent from 868, when they broke away from the central authority of the Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
that ruled the Islamic Caliphate, until 905, when the Abbasids restored the Tulunid domains to their control. In the late 9th century, internal conflict amongst the Abbasids meant that control of the outlying areas of the empire was increasingly tenuous, and in 868 the Turkic officer Ahmad ibn Tulun
Ahmad ibn Tulun
established himself as an independent governor of Egypt
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Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Rashidun Caliphate
The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎ al-Khilāfa-al-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad
Muhammad
after his death in 632 CE (AH 11). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn)
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Thirty-first Dynasty Of Egypt
Standard of Cyrus the GreatPharaoh •  343–338 BC Artaxerxes III
Artaxerxes III
(first) •  336–332 BC Darius III
Darius III
(last)Historical era Achaemenid era •  Conquests of Artaxerxes III 343 BC •  Conquests of Alexander the Great 332 BCDynasties of Ancient EgyptAll years are BCEarlyFirst Dynasty I c
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Ikhshidid Dynasty
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editThe Ikhshidid dynasty
Ikhshidid dynasty
(Turkish: Akşitler, Arabic: الإخشيديون‎) ruled Egypt
Egypt
from 935 to 969. Muhammad ibn Tughj al-Ikhshid, a Turkic[4][5][6] slave soldier, was appointed governor by the Abbasid Caliph.[7] The dynasty carried the Arabic title "Wāli" reflecting their position as governors on behalf of the Abbasids
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