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Pregnancy
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.[4] A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins.[12] Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology.[6] Childbirth
Childbirth
typically occurs around 40 weeks from the last menstrual period (LMP).[4][5] This is just over nine months, where each month averages 29½ days.[4][5] When measured from conception it is about 38 weeks.[5] An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight weeks following conception, after which, the term fetus is used until birt
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William Hunter (anatomist)
William Hunter FRS (23 May 1718 – 30 March 1783) was a Scottish anatomist and physician. He was a leading teacher of anatomy, and the outstanding obstetrician of his day. His guidance and training of his ultimately more famous brother, John Hunter, was also of great importance.Contents1 Early life and career 2 Later career 3 An avid coin and book collector 4 Controversy 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksEarly life and career[edit] He was born at Long Calderwood – now a part of East Kilbride, South Lanarkshire – the elder brother of John Hunter. After studying divinity at the University of Glasgow, he went into medicine in 1737, studying under William Cullen
William Cullen
at the University of Edinburgh. Arriving in London, Hunter became resident pupil to William Smellie (1741–44) and he was trained in anatomy at St George's Hospital, London, specialising in obstetrics
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Physical Examination
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. It generally follows the taking of the medical history—an account of the symptoms as experienced by the patient. Together with the medical history, the physical examination aids in determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan. This data then becomes part of the medical record. A Cochrane Collaboration
Cochrane Collaboration
meta-study found that routine annual physicals did not measurably reduce the risk of illness or death, and conversely, could lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment
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Diagnostic Method
Medical diagnosis
Medical diagnosis
(abbreviated Dx[1] or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. It is most often referred to as diagnosis with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more diagnostic procedures, such as diagnostic tests, are also done during the process. Sometimes posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific. For example, redness of the skin (erythema), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus does not tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis, in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed
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Fertilized Egg
A zygote (from Greek zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke")[1] is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. The zygote's genome is a combination of the DNA in each gamete, and contains all of the genetic information necessary to form a new individual. In multicellular organisms, the zygote is the earliest developmental stage. In single-celled organisms, the zygote can divide asexually by mitosis to produce identical offspring. Oscar Hertwig and Richard Hertwig made some of the first discoveries on animal zygote formation.Contents1 Fungi 2 Plants 3 Humans 4 In other species 5 In protozoa 6 See also 7 ReferencesFungi[edit] In fungi, the sexual fusion of haploid cells is called karyogamy. The result of karyogamy is the formation of a diploid cell called zygote or zygospore
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Fallopian Tube
The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the uterotubal junction. They enable the passage of egg cells from the ovaries to the uterus
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Offspring
In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspring may be known as a brood or progeny in a more general way. This can refer to a set of simultaneous offspring, such as the chicks hatched from one clutch of eggs, or to all the offspring, as with the honeybee. Human offspring (descendants) are referred to as children (without reference to age, thus one can refer to a parent's "minor children" or "adult children" or "infant children" or "teenage children" depending on their age); male children are sons and female children are daughters (see kinship and descent). Offspring
Offspring
can occur after mating or after artificial insemination. Offspring
Offspring
contains many parts and properties that are precise and accurate in what they consist of, and what they define
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Fetal Viability
Fetal viability
Fetal viability
or foetal viability is the ability of a fetus to survive outside the uterus.[1]Contents1 Definitions 2 Medical viability 3 Legal definitions3.1 United States Supreme Court 3.2 Born-Alive Infants Protection Act
Born-Alive Infants Protection Act
of 2002 3.3 U.S. State Law4 Limit of viability 5 Factors that influence the chance of survival 6 See also 7 ReferencesDefinitions[edit] Viability, as the word has been used in United States constitutional law since Roe v. Wade, is the potential of the fetus to survive outside the uterus after birth, natural or induced, when supported by up-to-date medicine
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Months
A month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural period related to the motion of the Moon; month and Moon
Moon
are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of moon phases; such months (lunations) are synodic months and last approximately 29.53 days. From excavated tally sticks, researchers have deduced that people counted days in relation to the Moon's phases as early as the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age
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Complication (medicine)
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy. The disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems. A new disease may also appear as a complication to a previous existing disease. A medical treatment, such as drugs or surgery may produce adverse effects or produce new health problem(s) by itself. Therefore, a complication may be iatrogenic (i.e. literally brought forth by the physician). Medical knowledge about a disease, procedure or treatment usually entails a list of the most common complications, so that they can be foreseen, prevented or recognized more easily and speedily. Depending on the degree of vulnerability, susceptibility, age, health status, immune system condition, etc. complications may arise more easily
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Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral palsy
Cerebral palsy
(CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.[1] Signs and symptoms vary among people.[1] Often, symptoms include poor coordination, stiff muscles, weak muscles, and tremors.[1] There may be problems with sensation, vision, hearing, swallowing, and speaking.[1] Often babies with cerebral palsy do not roll over, sit, crawl, or walk as early as other children of their age.[1] Other symptoms may include seizures and problems with thin
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Developing World
A developing country, also called a less developed country or an underdeveloped country, is a nation with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) relative to other countries.[1] However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category.[2] A nation's GDP per capita
GDP per capita
compared with other nations can also be a reference point. The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a changing dynamic or expected direction of progress. Since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries.[3] There is criticism for using the term developing country. The term implies inferiority of a developing country or undeveloped country compared with a developed country, which many countries dislike
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Labor Induction
Labor induction is the process or treatment that stimulates childbirth and delivery. Inducing labor can be accomplished with pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical methods.Contents1 Medical uses 2 Methods of induction2.1 Medication 2.2 Non-pharmaceutical3 When to induce 4 Criticisms of induction 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksMedical uses[edit] Commonly accepted medical reasons for induction include:Postterm pregnancy, i.e
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Amenorrhea
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Physiological states of amenorrhoea are seen, most commonly, during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding), the latter also forming the basis of a form of contraception known as the lactational amenorrhoea method. Outside the reproductive years, there is absence of menses during childhood and after menopause. Amenorrhoea is a symptom with many potential causes. Primary amenorrhoea (menstrual cycles never starting) may be caused by developmental problems, such as the congenital absence of the uterus or failure of the ovary to receive or maintain egg cells. Also, delay in pubertal development will lead to primary amenorrhoea. It is defined as an absence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14 with no menarche or normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche by 16 years of age
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Embryo
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism. In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. The zygote possesses half the DNA
DNA
of each of its two parents. In plants, animals, and some protists, the zygote will begin to divide by mitosis to produce a multicellular organism
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