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Pregnancy
PREGNANCY, also known as GESTATION, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman . A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins . Pregnancy
Pregnancy
can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology . Childbirth
Childbirth
typically occurs around 40 weeks from the last menstrual period (LMP). This is just over nine lunar months , where each month is about 29½ days. When measured from conception it is about 38 weeks. An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight weeks following conception, after which, the term fetus is used until birth. Symptoms of early pregnancy may include missed periods, tender breasts, nausea and vomiting , hunger, and frequent urination. Pregnancy
Pregnancy
may be confirmed with a pregnancy test . Pregnancy
Pregnancy
is typically divided into three trimesters
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Fetal Viability
FETAL VIABILITY or FOETAL VIABILITY is the ability of a fetus to survive outside the uterus. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Medical viability * 3 Legal definitions * 3.1 United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
* 3.2 Born-Alive Infants Protection Act
Born-Alive Infants Protection Act
of 2002 * 3.3 U.S. State Law * 4 Limit of viability * 5 Factors that influence the chance of survival * 6 See also * 7 References DEFINITIONSAs the word is used in United States constitutional law since Roe v. Wade , VIABILITY is the potential of the fetus to survive outside the uterus after birth, natural or induced, when supported by up-to-date medicine. Fetal viability
Fetal viability
depends largely on the fetal organ maturity, and environmental conditions
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Physical Examination
A PHYSICAL EXAMINATION, MEDICAL EXAMINATION, or CLINICAL EXAMINATION (more popularly known as a CHECK-UP) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease . It generally follows the taking of the medical history —an account of the symptoms as experienced by the patient. Together with the medical history, the physical examination aids in determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan. This data then becomes part of the medical record . A Cochrane Collaboration
Cochrane Collaboration
meta-study found that routine annual physicals did not measurably reduce the risk of illness or death, and conversely, could lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The authors concluded that routine physicals were unlikely to do more good than harm
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Diagnostic Method
MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS (abbreviated DX or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs . It is most often referred to as DIAGNOSIS with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES, such as diagnostic tests , are also done during the process. Sometimes Posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific . For example, redness of the skin (erythema ), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus doesn't tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis , in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed
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Fallopian Tube
The FALLOPIAN TUBES, also known as UTERINE TUBES or SALPINGES (singular SALPINX), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia , leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus , via the uterotubal junction . In non-mammalian vertebrates , the equivalent structures are called oviducts . CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Histology
Histology
* 1.2 Development * 2 Function * 2.1 Fertilization
Fertilization
* 3 Clinical significance * 3.1 Patency testing * 3.2 Inflammation * 3.3 Cancer * 3.4 Surgery * 4 History * 5 Additional images * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links STRUCTUREIn a woman's body the tube allows passage of the egg from the ovary to the uterus
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Offspring
In biology , OFFSPRING are the young born of living organisms , produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction , two organisms. Collective offspring may be known as a BROOD or PROGENY in a more general way. This can refer to a set of simultaneous offspring, such as the chicks hatched from one clutch of eggs, or to all the offspring, as with the honeybee . Human offspring (descendants ) are referred to as children (without reference to age, thus one can refer to a parent's "minor children" or "adult children" or "infant children " or "teenage children " depending on their age); male children are sons and female children are daughters (see kinship and descent ). Offspring
Offspring
can occur after mating or after artificial insemination . Offspring
Offspring
contains many parts and properties that are precise and accurate in what they consist of, and what they define
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Fertilized Egg
A ZYGOTE (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke"), is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes . The zygote's genome is a combination of the DNA in each gamete, and contains all of the genetic information necessary to form a new individual. In multicellular organisms, the zygote is the earliest developmental stage. In single-celled organisms, the zygote can divide asexually by mitosis to produce identical offspring. Oscar Hertwig and Richard Hertwig made some of the first discoveries on animal zygote formation. CONTENTS * 1 Fungi * 2 Plants * 3 Humans * 4 In other species * 5 In protozoa * 6 See also * 7 References FUNGIIn fungi, the sexual fusion of haploid cells is called karyogamy . The result of karyogamy is a diploid cell called a zygote or zygospore
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Cerebral Palsy
CEREBRAL PALSY (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Signs and symptoms vary among people. Often, symptoms include poor coordination, stiff muscles , weak muscles, and tremors . There may be problems with sensation , vision , hearing , swallowing , and speaking . Often babies with cerebral palsy do not roll over, sit, crawl, or walk as early as other children of their age. Other symptoms include seizures and problems with thinking or reasoning , each of which occurs in about one third of people with CP. While the symptoms may get more noticeable over the first few years of life, the underlying problems do not worsen over time. Cerebral palsy
Cerebral palsy
is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth
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Lunar Months
In lunar calendars , a LUNAR MONTH is the time between two successive syzygies (new moons or full moons ). The use of the lunar month varies by which culture has utilized the method, the main difference being when the "new" month begins. This article deals with the definitions of a 'month' that are mainly of significance in astronomy. For other definitions, including a description of a month in the calendars of different cultures around the world, see: month . CONTENTS * 1 Variations * 2 Terminology * 2.1 Sidereal month * 2.2 Synodic month * 2.3 Tropical month * 2.4 Anomalistic month * 2.5 Draconic month * 3 Cycle lengths * 4 See also * 5 References VARIATIONSIn Shona , Middle-Eastern , and European traditions, the month starts when the young crescent moon becomes first visible at evening after conjunction with the Sun one or two days before that evening (e.g., in the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
)
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William Hunter (anatomist)
WILLIAM HUNTER FRS (23 May 1718 – 30 March 1783) was a Scottish anatomist and physician . He was a leading teacher of anatomy, and the outstanding obstetrician of his day. His guidance and training of his ultimately more famous brother, John Hunter , was also of great importance. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and career * 2 Later career * 3 An avid coin and book collector * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links EARLY LIFE AND CAREERHe was born at Long Calderwood – now a part of East Kilbride
East Kilbride
, South Lanarkshire
South Lanarkshire
– the elder brother of John Hunter . After studying divinity at the University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
, he went into medicine in 1737, studying under William Cullen
William Cullen
at the University of Edinburgh
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Specialty (medicine)
A SPECIALTY (or SPECIALITY) in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school , physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a MEDICAL SPECIALIST
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Complication (medicine)
COMPLICATION, in medicine , is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease , a health condition or a therapy . The disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems. A new disease may also appear as a complication to a previous existing disease. A medical treatment, such as drugs or surgery may produce adverse effects and/or produce new health problem(s) by itself. Therefore, a complication may be iatrogenic , i.e., literally brought forth by the physician. Medical knowledge about a disease, procedure or treatment usually entails a list of the most common complications, so that they can be foreseen, prevented or recognized more easily and speedily. Depending on the degree of vulnerability, susceptibility, age , health status, immune system condition, etc. complications may arise more easily
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Developing World
A DEVELOPING COUNTRY, also called a LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRY or an UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRY, is a nation or a sovereign state with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. There are no universally agreed-upon criteria for what makes a country developing versus developed and which countries fit these two categories, although there are general reference points such as a nation's GDP per capita compared with other nations. Also the general term less-developed country should not be confused with the specific least developed country . The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a dynamic or expected direction of progress. Since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than the developed ones. There is criticism for using the term developing country
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Labor Induction
LABOR INDUCTION is the process or treatment that stimulates childbirth and delivery . Inducing labor can be accomplished with pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical methods. CONTENTS * 1 Medical uses * 2 Methods of induction * 2.1 Medication * 2.2 Non-pharmaceutical * 3 When to induce * 4 Criticisms of induction * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links MEDICAL USESCommonly accepted medical reasons for induction include: * Postterm pregnancy , i.e. if the pregnancy has gone past the end of the 41st week. * Intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR). * There are health risks to the woman in continuing the pregnancy (e.g. she has pre-eclampsia ). * Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM); this is when the membranes have ruptured, but labor does not start within a specific amount of time
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Embryo
An EMBRYO is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism. In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually , an embryo develops from a zygote , the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. The zygote possesses half the DNA
DNA
of each of its two parents. In plants , animals , and some protists , the zygote will begin to divide by mitosis to produce a multicellular organism. The result of this process is an embryo. In humans, a pregnancy is generally considered to be in the embryonic stage of development between the fifth and the eleventh weeks after fertilization, and is expressed as a fetus from the twelfth week. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Development * 2.1 Plant
Plant
embryos * 3 Research and technology * 3.1 Fossilized embryos * 4 Miscarriage the proper Latinized form of the Greek term would be embryum
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