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Preconscious
In psychoanalysis, preconscious are the thoughts which are unconscious at the particular moment in question, but which are not repressed and are therefore available for recall and easily 'capable of becoming conscious'—a phrase attributed by Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
to Joseph Breuer.[1] Freud contrasted the preconscious (Psc.; German: das Vorbewusste) to both the conscious (Cs.; das Bewusste) and the unconscious (Ucs.; das Unbewusste) in his so-called topographical system of the mind.[2] The preconscious can also refer to information that is available for cognitive processing but that currently lies outside conscious awareness. One of the most common forms of preconscious processing is priming (psychology)
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R. D. Laing
Ronald David Laing (/ˈleɪŋ/; 7 October 1927 – 23 August 1989), usually cited as R. D. Laing, was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness – in particular, the experience of psychosis. Laing's views on the causes and treatment of serious mental dysfunction, greatly influenced by existential philosophy, ran counter to the chemical and electroshock methods becoming the psychiatric orthodoxy of the day. Taking the expressed feelings of the individual patient or client as valid descriptions of lived experience rather than simply as symptoms of mental illness, Laing regarded schizophrenia as a theory not a fact
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Josef Breuer
Josef Breuer
Josef Breuer
(German: [ˈbʀɔʏɐ]; 15 January 1842 – 20 June 1925) was a distinguished n physician who made key discoveries in neurophysiology, and whose work in the 1880s with his patient Bertha Pappenheim, known as Anna O., developed the talking cure (cathartic method) and laid the foundation to psychoanalysis as developed by his protégé Sigmund Freud.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 Neurophysiology 3 Anna O. 4 Family 5 Works 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly life[edit] Born in Vienna, his father, Leopold Breuer, taught religion in Vienna's Jewish
Jewish
community. Breuer's mother died when he was quite young, and he was raised by his maternal grandmother and educated by his father until the age of eight
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Abram Kardiner
Abram Kardiner (17 August 1891, New York City
New York City
– 20 July 1981, Connecticut) was an American anthropologist and psychoanalyst. He is most famously known for his seminal 1941 study The Traumatic Neuroses of War, seen by many modern specialists as a key beginning work on psychological trauma. Based on work conducted at No. 81 Veterans' Bureau Hospital in the Bronx, New York City, in the 1920s and early 1930s, his study was one of the first to make explicit connections between peacetime and war trauma, and many of the symptoms he described in patients would later be utilized in the 1980 definition of post-traumatic stress disorder by the American Psychiatric Association. References[edit]External links[edit]Works by or about Abram Kardiner at Internet ArchiveThis article about an American scientist is a stub
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Erich Fromm
Erich Seligmann Fromm (German: [fʀɔm]; March 23, 1900 – March 18, 1980) was a German-born American social psychologist, psychoanalyst, sociologist, humanistic philosopher, and democratic socialist. He was one of Founders of The William Allison White Institute of Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
and Psychology in New York City and was associated with the Frankfurt School
Frankfurt School
of critical theory.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Psychological theory2.1 Five basic orientations 2.2 Fromm's influence on other notable psychologists3 Critique of Freud 4 Political ideas and activities 5 Criticism 6 Bibliography6.1 Early work in German 6.2 Later works in English7 See also 8 Notes 9 Further reading 10 External linksLife[edit] Erich Fromm
Erich Fromm
was born on March 23, 1900, at Frankfurt am Main, the only child of Orthodox Jewish parents
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Max Eitingon
Max Eitingon
Max Eitingon
(26 June 1881 – 30 July 1943) was a Belarusian-German medical doctor and psychoanalyst, instrumental in establishing the institutional parameters of psychoanalytic education and training.[1] Eitingon was cofounder and president from 1920 to 1933 of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Polyclinic. He was also director and patron of the Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag (1921-1930), president of the International Psychoanalytic Association
International Psychoanalytic Association
(1927-1933), founder and president of the International Training Committee (1925-1943), and founder of the Palestine Psychoanalytic Society (1934) and of the Psychoanalytic Institute of Israel.[2]Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Eitingon was born to an extremely wealthy Orthodox Jewish family in Mohilev, Imperial Russia, the son of a successful fur trader Chaim Eitingon
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Erik Erikson
Erik Smith Erikson (born Erik Salomonsen; 15 June 1902 – 12 May 1994) was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human beings. He may be most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis. His son, Kai T. Erikson, is a noted American sociologist. Despite lacking a bachelor's degree, Erikson served as a professor at prominent institutions, including Harvard
Harvard
and Yale
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Paul Federn
Paul Federn (October 13, 1871 – May 4, 1950) was an Austrian-American psychologist who was a native of Vienna. Federn is largely remembered for his theories involving ego psychology and therapeutic treatment of psychosis.Contents1 Life and career 2 Writings 3 Influence 4 References 5 External linksLife and career[edit] After earning his doctorate in 1895, he was an assistant in general medicine under Hermann Nothnagel
Hermann Nothnagel
(1841–1905) in Vienna. It was Nothnagel who introduced Federn to the works of Sigmund Freud. Federn was deeply influenced by Freud's Interpretation of Dreams, and in 1904 became devoted to the field of psychoanalysis
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Joan Riviere
Joan Hodgson Riviere (28 June 1883 – 20 May 1962) was a British psychoanalyst, who was both an early translator of Freud into English and an influential writer on her own account.Contents1 Life and career 2 Seminal writings 3 Other publications 4 Translations 5 ReferencesLife and career[edit] Riviere was born Joan Hodgson Verrall in Brighton, the daughter of Hugh John Verrall and his wife Ann Hodgson. Her father was a lawyer and her mother a vicar's daughter.[1] She was educated in Brighton
Brighton
and then at Wycombe Abbey.[2] At the age of seventeen, she went to Gotha, Germany, where she spent a year and became proficient in the German language. Her interests were primarily artistic and she was for a time a court dressmaker.[1] Riviere married in 1907 and had a child, but suffered a breakdown on the death of her father around that time. She took an interest in divorce reform and the suffragette movement
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Isidor Sadger
Isidor Isaak Sadger (29 October 1867 - 21 December 1942), born in Neu Sandez, Galicia, was a forensic doctor and psychoanalyst in Vienna. A leader in the early development of psychoanalysis, he began his career as a neurological specialist and, in 1894, began publishing a series of articles on psychophysiology. He studied with Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
from 1895 to 1904 with a concentration in homosexuality and fetishism and coined the term Sadomasochismus (sadomasochism) in 1913. He also coined the term "Narcissmus" (narcissism). In September 1942, he was deported to the Theresienstadt
Theresienstadt
concentration camp, where he died. Work[edit] Sadger published "Fragment der Psychoanalyse eines Homosexuellen" in the Jahrbuch für sexuellen Zwischenstufen in 1908. It described his analysis of a melancholy Danish count who was homosexual
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Ernst Simmel
Ernst Simmel (German: [ˈzɪməl]; 4 April 1882, Breslau
Breslau
– 11 November 1947, Los Angeles) was a German-Jewish neurologist and psychoanalyst.Contents1 Life 2 Studies2.1 Anti-Semitism study3 Papers 4 See also 5 Works 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksLife[edit] Born in Breslau
Breslau
(Wrocław), Silesia to a secular Jewish background, Simmel moved to Berlin
Berlin
as a child.[1] He studied medicine and psychiatry in Berlin
Berlin
and Rostock. He graduated in medicine in 1908, with a dissertation on dementia praecox
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James Strachey
James Beaumont Strachey (/ˈstreɪtʃi/; 26 September 1887, London – 25 April 1967, High Wycombe) was a British psychoanalyst, and, with his wife Alix, a translator of Sigmund Freud into English. He is perhaps best known as the general editor of The Standard Edition
Standard Edition
of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud ... the international authority".[1]Contents1 Early life 2 The psychoanalytic turn 3 Psychoanalytic writings 4 The translations 5 James Strachey, Holroyd, and "Lytton Strachey" 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly life[edit] He was a son of Lt-Gen Sir Richard Strachey and Lady (Jane) Strachey, called the enfant miracle as his father was 70 and his mother 47. Some of his nieces and nephews, who were considerably older than James, called him Jembeau or Uncle Baby
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Consciousness
Consciousness
Consciousness
is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.[1][2] It has been defined variously in terms of sentience, awareness, qualia, subjectivity, the ability to experience or to feel, wakefulness, having a sense of selfhood or soul, the fact that there is something "that it is like" to "have" or "be" it, and the executive control system of the mind.[3] In contemporary philosophy its definition is often hinted at via the logical possibility of its absence, the philosophical zombie, which is defined as a being whose behavior and function are identi
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Melanie Klein
Melanie Reizes Klein (30 March 1882 – 22 September 1960) was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst who devised novel therapeutic techniques for children that influenced child psychology and contemporary psychoanalysis. She was a leading innovator in object relations theory.Contents1 Life 2 Thought 3 In popular culture 4 Bibliography 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksLife[edit] Melanie Klein
Melanie Klein
c. 1900Born in Vienna
Vienna
of Jewish heritage,[1] Klein first sought psychoanalysis for herself from Sándor Ferenczi
Sándor Ferenczi
when she was living in Budapest
Budapest
during World War I.[2] There she became a psychoanalyst and began analysing children in 1919. Allegedly two of the first children she analysed were her son and daughter
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Ernest Jones
Alfred Ernest Jones
Ernest Jones
FRCP MRCS (1 January 1879 – 11 February 1958) was a Welsh neurologist and psychoanalyst. A lifelong friend and colleague of Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
from their first meeting in 1908, he became his official biographer. Jones was the first English-speaking practitioner of psychoanalysis and became its leading exponent in the English-speaking world
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Carl Jung
Carl Gustav Jung
Carl Gustav Jung
(/jʊŋ/; German: [ˈkarl ˈɡʊstaf ˈjʊŋ]; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. His work has been influential not only in psychiatry but also in anthropology, archaeology, literature, philosophy, and religious studies. As a notable research scientist based at the famous Burghölzli
Burghölzli
hospital, under Eugen Bleuler, he came to the attention of the Viennese founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud. The two men conducted a lengthy correspondence and collaborated on an initially joint vision of human psychology. Freud saw in the younger man the potential heir he had been seeking to carry on his "new science" of psychoanalysis. Jung's research and personal vision, however, made it impossible for him to bend to his older colleague's doctrine and a schism became inevitable
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