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Preaching
A SERMON is an oration , lecture , or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy . Sermons address a Biblical, theological, religious, or moral topic, usually expounding on a type of belief, law or behavior within both past and present contexts. Elements of the sermon often include exposition, exhortation and practical application. In Christianity, a sermon is usually delivered in a place of worship from an elevated architectural feature, variously known as a pulpit , a lectern , or an ambo . The word "sermon" comes from a Middle English word which was derived from Old French
Old French
, which in turn came from the Latin word sermō meaning "discourse". The word can mean "conversation", which could mean that early sermons were delivered in the form of question and answer, and that only later did it come to mean a monologue
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John Chrysostom
JOHN CHRYSOSTOM (/ˈkrɪsəstəm, krɪˈsɒstəm/ ; Greek : Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος), c. 349 – 407, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Constantinople
Constantinople
, was an important Early Church Father . He is known for his preaching and public speaking , his denunciation of abuse of authority by both ecclesiastical and political leaders, the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
of Saint John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
, and his ascetic sensibilities. The epithet Χρυσόστομος (Chrysostomos, anglicized as Chrysostom) means "golden-mouthed" in Greek and denotes his celebrated eloquence. Chrysostom was among the most prolific authors in the early Christian Church, exceeded only by Augustine of Hippo in the quantity of his surviving writings
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Asia Minor
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 The traditional definition of Anatolia
Anatolia
within modern Turkey
Turkey
ANATOLIA (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ – "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern Turkish : Anadolu), in geography known as ASIA MINOR (from Greek : Μικρὰ Ἀσία Mīkrá Asía – "small Asia"; in modern Turkish : Küçük Asya), ASIAN TURKEY, ANATOLIAN PENINSULA, or ANATOLIAN PLATEAU, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia , which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey
Turkey
. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Roman Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
. Its central administration, the Holy See
Holy See
, is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Protestantism
PROTESTANTISM is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians
Christians
. It originated with the Reformation , a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Ever since, Protestants reject the Roman Catholic
Catholic
doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments , but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
Eucharist
. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers , justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than by good works , and the highest authority of the Bible
Bible
alone (rather than with sacred tradition ) in faith and morals (sola scriptura )
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Tertullian
TERTULLIAN (/tərˈtʌliən/ ), full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage
Carthage
in the Roman province of Africa . Of Berber origin, he was the first Christian author to produce an extensive corpus of Latin Christian literature. He also was an early Christian apologist and a polemicist against heresy , including contemporary Christian Gnosticism
Christian Gnosticism
. Tertullian
Tertullian
has been called "the father of Latin Christianity " and "the founder of Western theology." Though conservative in his worldview, Tertullian
Tertullian
originated new theological concepts and advanced the development of early Church doctrine. He is perhaps most famous for being the first writer in Latin known to use the term trinity (Latin: trinitas)
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Stephen
STEPHEN /ˈstiːvən, ˈstiːfən/ or STEVEN /ˈstiːvən/ is a common English first name . It is particularly significant to Christians , as it belonged to Saint Stephen (Greek Στέφανος Stéphanos), an early disciple and deacon who, according to the Book of Acts , was stoned to death; he is widely regarded as the first martyr (or "protomartyr ") of the Christian Church
Christian Church
. The name "Stephen" (and its more common variant "Steven") is derived from Greek Στέφανος (Stéphanos), a first name from the Greek word στέφανος (stéphanos), meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor", from the verb στέφειν (stéphein), "to encircle, to wreathe"
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Capernaum
CAPERNAUM (/kəˈpɜːrniəm/ kə-PUR-nee-əm ; Hebrew : כְּפַר נַחוּם‎, Kfar Nahum; Arabic
Arabic
: كفر ناحوم, meaning "Nahum's village" in both languages) was a fishing village established during the time of the Hasmoneans , located on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
. It had a population of about 1,500. Archaeological excavations have revealed two ancient synagogues built one over the other. A house turned into a church by the Byzantines is said to be the home of Saint Peter
Saint Peter
. Capernaum's 4th-century synagogue (detail with columns and benches) The village was inhabited continuously from the 2nd century BCE to the 11th century CE, when it was abandoned sometime before the Crusader conquest . This includes the re-establishment of the village during the Early Islamic period soon after the 749 earthquake
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Early Modern
The EARLY MODERN PERIOD of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era . Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age (c. 1500), known as the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c. 1800) and is variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
in 1453, with the Renaissance
Renaissance
period, and with the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
(especially with the voyages of Christopher Columbus beginning in 1492, but also with Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to the East in 1498), and ending around the French Revolution in 1789
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Acts Of The Apostles
ACTS OF THE APOSTLES ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Latin : Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as ACTS, is the fifth book of the New Testament ; it tells of the founding of the Christian
Christian
church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Acts and the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke make up a two-part work, Luke–Acts , by the same anonymous author, usually dated to around 80–90 AD. The first part, the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke , tells how God fulfilled his plan for the world's salvation through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth , the promised Messiah
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Laity
A LAYPERSON (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject. In religious organizations, the LAITY consists of all members who are not members of the clergy , usually including any non-ordained members of religious institutes , e.g. a nun or lay brother . In Christian
Christian
cultures, the term lay priest was sometimes used in the past to refer to a secular priest , a diocesan priest who is not a member of a religious institute. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints uses the term "Lay Priesthood" to emphasise that local congregational leaders are unpaid. Terms such as lay priest, lay clergy and lay nun were also once used in Buddhist
Buddhist
cultures to indicate ordained persons who continued to live in the wider community instead of retiring to a monastery
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Religious Institute
In the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
a RELIGIOUS INSTITUTE is "a society in which members...pronounce public vows ...and lead a life of brothers or sisters in common". Consecrated life may be lived either individually or as a member of an institute. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
recognises, as forms of individual consecrated life, that of a hermit and that of a consecrated virgin . It also envisages new forms of consecrated life emerging. Religious institutes are one of the two types of institutes of consecrated life . The other is that of the secular institute , defined as "an institute of consecrated life in which the Christian faithful, living in the world, strive for the perfection of charity and seek to contribute to the sanctification of the world, especially from within". Societies of apostolic life resemble religious institutes, but differ in that their members do not take religious vows
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First Crusade
CRUSADERS * Kingdom of France * Blois * Toulouse * Boulogne * Flanders * Normandy * Le Puy-en-Velay * Vermandois * Brittany * Holy Roman Empire * Duchy of Lower Lorraine * Republic of Genoa *
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Council Of Clermont
The COUNCIL OF CLERMONT was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, which was held from November 18 to November 28, 1095 at Clermont, France
France
. Pope Urban II 's speech on November 27 was the starting point of the First Crusade . CONTENTS* 1 Background * 1.1 Six sources * 2 Speech * 3 A call for Orthodoxy * 4 References * 4.1 Sources * 4.2 Further reading * 5 External links BACKGROUNDIn 1095 Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus
Alexius I Comnenus
sent envoys to the west requesting military assistance against the Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
. The message was received by Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza . Later that year, in November, Urban called the Council of Clermont
Council of Clermont
to discuss the matter further
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