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Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
(later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais
John Everett Millais
and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The three founders were joined by William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, Frederic George Stephens
Frederic George Stephens
and Thomas Woolner
Thomas Woolner
to form the seven-member "brotherhood"
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Rienzi Vowing To Obtain Justice For The Death Of His Young Brother, Slain In A Skirmish Between The Colonna And The Orsini Factions
Faction or factionalism may refer to:Political faction, a group of people with a common political purpose Clan (computer gaming) or Guild, an association of players of multiplayer games Faction (literature), a type of historical novel based on fact Faction (Planescape), political factio
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Idealism
In philosophy, Idealism
Idealism
is the group of metaphysical philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Epistemologically, idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing. In contrast to Materialism, Idealism
Idealism
asserts the primacy of consciousness as the origin and prerequisite of material phenomena. According to this view consciousness exists before and is the pre-condition of material existence. Consciousness
Consciousness
creates and determines the material and not vice versa. Idealism
Idealism
believes consciousness and mind to be the origin of the material world and aims to explain the existing world according to these principles. Idealism
Idealism
theories are mainly divided into two groups
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Quattrocento
The cultural and artistic events of Italy
Italy
during the period 1400 to 1499 are collectively referred to as the Quattrocento
Quattrocento
(Italian pronunciation: [ˌkwattroˈtʃɛnto]) from the Italian for the number 400, in turn from millequattrocento, which is Italian for the year 1400. The Quattrocento
Quattrocento
encompasses the artistic styles of the late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(most notably International Gothic) and the early Renaissance.Contents1 Historical context 2 Development of Quattrocento
Quattrocento
styles 3 List of Italian Quattrocento
Quattrocento
artists 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistorical context[edit] After the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 476, economic disorder and disruption of trade spread across Europe
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Royal Academy Of Arts
The Royal Academy of Arts
Royal Academy of Arts
(RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House
Burlington House
on Piccadilly
Piccadilly
in London
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Sir Joshua Reynolds
Sir Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
RA FRS FRSA (/ˈrɛnəldz/; 16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in portraits. John Russell said he was one of the major European painters of the 18th Century. [1] He promoted the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect
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Cleveland Street, London
Cleveland Street in central London runs north to south from Euston Road (A501) to the junction of Mortimer Street and Goodge Street. It lies within Fitzrovia, in the W1 post code area. Cleveland Street also runs along part of the border between Bloomsbury (ward) which is located in London Borough of Camden, and West End (ward) and Marylebone
Marylebone
High Street (ward) in the City of Westminster.[1]Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Notable buildings 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksGeography[edit]Cleveland Street as seen on Greenwood's map of the area in the late 1820sArea before Cleveland Street (Norfolk St) was laid out in 1774[2]Cleveland Street Work House LondonCleveland Street Conservation AreaCleveland Street marks the border between the City of Westminster
City of Westminster
to its west and the London Borough of Camden
London Borough of Camden
to the east
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Fitzrovia
Fitzrovia
Fitzrovia
(/fɪtsˈroʊviə/[1]) is a district in central London, near London's West End lying partly in the City of Westminster
City of Westminster
(in the west), and partly in the London Borough of Camden
London Borough of Camden
(in the east); and situated between Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
and Marylebone, and north of Soho
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Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Michelangelo
di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo
Michelangelo
(/ˌmaɪkəlˈændʒəloʊ/; Italian: [mikeˈlandʒelo di lodoˈviːko
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The Eve Of St. Agnes
The Eve of St. Agnes
The Eve of St. Agnes
is a Romantic narrative poem of 42 Spenserian stanzas set in the Middle Ages. It was written by John Keats
John Keats
in 1819 and published in 1820. The poem was considered by many of Keats' contemporaries and the succeeding Victorians to be one of his finest and was influential in 19th century literature.[1] The title comes from the day (or evening) before the feast of Saint Agnes (or St. Agnes' Eve). St. Agnes, the patron saint of virgins, died a martyr in 4th century Rome. The eve falls on 20 January; the feast day on the 21st. The divinations referred to by Keats in this poem are referred to by John Aubrey
John Aubrey
in his Miscellanies (1696) as being associated with St
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Medieval
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Spirituality
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world
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Materialism
Materialism
Materialism
is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions. In Idealism, mind and consciousness are first-order realities to which matter is subject and secondary. In philosophical materialism the converse is true. Here mind and consciousness are by-products or epiphenomena of material processes (the biochemistry of the human brain and nervous system, for example) without which they cannot exist. According to this doctrine the material creates and determines consciousness, not vice versa. Materialists believe that Matter
Matter
and the physical laws that govern it constitute the most reliable guide to the nature of mind and consciousness. Materialist theories are mainly divided into three groups
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Mimesis
Mimesis (/maɪˈmiːsəs/; Ancient Greek: μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate", from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.[1] In ancient Greece, mimesis was an idea that governed the creation of works of art, in particular, with correspondence to the physical world understood as a model for beauty, truth, and the good. Plato contrasted mimesis, or imitation, with diegesis, or narrative
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Gustave Courbet
Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet
Gustave Courbet
(French: [ɡystav kuʁbɛ]; 10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism movement in 19th-century French painting. Committed to painting only what he could see, he rejected academic convention and the Romanticism of the previous generation of visual artists. His independence set an example that was important to later artists, such as the Impressionists and the Cubists. Courbet occupies an important place in 19th-century French painting as an innovator and as an artist willing to make bold social statements through his work. Courbet's paintings of the late 1840s and early 1850s brought him his first recognition. They challenged convention by depicting unidealized peasants and workers, often on a grand scale traditionally reserved for paintings of religious or historical subjects
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Glaze (painting Technique)
A glaze is a thin transparent or semi-transparent layer on a painting which modifies the appearance of the underlying paint layer. Glazes can change the chroma, value, hue and texture of a surface. Glazes consist of a great amount of binding medium in relation to a very small amount of pigment.[1] Drying time will depend on the amount and type of paint medium used in the glaze. The medium, base, or vehicle is the mixture to which the dry pigment is added. Different media can increase or decrease the rate at which oil paints dry. Often, because a paint is too opaque, painters will add special media or a lot of medium to the paint to make them more transparent for the purposes of glazing. While these media are usually liquids, there are solid and semi-solid media used in the making of paints as well
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