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Pre-Columbian
The Pre-Columbian era
Pre-Columbian era
incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas
Americas
before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
period to European colonization during the Early Modern period. While the phrase "pre-Columbian era" literally refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus's voyages of 1492, in practice the phrase is usually used to denote the entire history of indigenous Americas
Americas
cultures until those cultures were exterminated, diminished, or extensively altered by Europeans, even if this happened decades or centuries after Columbus's first landing
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Hunter-gatherers
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting
Hunting
and gathering was humanity's first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history.[1] Following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gather
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Bering Land Bridge
Beringia
Beringia
is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River
Lena River
in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.[1] It includes the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea, the Bering Strait, the Chukchi and Kamchatka Peninsulas in Russia
Russia
as well as Alaska
Alaska
in the United States. The area includes land lying on the North American Plate
North American Plate
and Siberian land east of the Chersky Range
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Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University
is a private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for clergyman John Harvard (its first benefactor), its history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities.[8] Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning,[9] and the Harvard Corporation
Harvard Corporation
(formally, the President and Fellows of Harvard College) is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites.[10][11] Following the American Civil War, President Charles W
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Alfred P. Maudslay
Alfred Percival Maudslay (18 March 1850 – 22 January 1931) was a British diplomat, explorer and archaeologist. He was one of the first Europeans to study Maya ruins.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Personal life 4 Selected works 5 References 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Maudslay was born at Lower Norwood Lodge, near London, England into a wealthy engineering family descended from Henry Maudslay. He was educated at Royal Tunbridge Wells
Royal Tunbridge Wells
and Harrow School, and studied natural sciences at Trinity Hall, Cambridge
Trinity Hall, Cambridge
in 1868–72,[1] where he was acquainted with John Willis Clark, then Secretary of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. After graduation, Maudslay enrolled in medical school but left because of acute bronchitis. Career[edit] After leaving Medical School, he moved to Trinidad, becoming private secretary to Governor William Cairns, and transferred with Cairns to Queensland
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John Lloyd Stephens
John Lloyd Stephens
John Lloyd Stephens
(November 28, 1805 – October 13, 1852) was an American explorer, writer, and diplomat. Stephens was a pivotal figure in the rediscovery of Maya civilization
Maya civilization
throughout Middle America and in the planning of the Panama
Panama
railroad. Contents1 Early life 2 Politics 3 Mesoamerican studies 4 Panama
Panama
Railroad Company 5 Bibliography 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksEarly life[edit] John Lloyd Stephens
John Lloyd Stephens
was born November 28, 1805, in the township of Shrewsbury, New Jersey.[1] He was the second son of Benjamin Stephens, a successful New Jersey merchant, and Clemence Lloyd, daughter of an eminent local judge.[2] The following year the family moved to New York City. There Stephens received an education in the Classics at two privately tutored schools
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Heresy
Heresy
Heresy
(/ˈhɛrəsi/) is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization
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Oral History
Oral history
Oral history
is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews. These interviews are conducted with people who participated in or observed past events and whose memories and perceptions of these are to be preserved as an aural record for future generations. Oral history strives to obtain information from different perspectives and most of these cannot be found in written sources
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Complex Society
In anthropology and archaeology, a complex society is a social formation that is described as a formative or developed state.[citation needed] The main parts of complexity are:[citation needed]the extent of a division of labour in which members of society are more or less permanently specialized in particular activities and depend on others for goods and services, within a system regulated by custom and laws. the population size of a human community; the larger the population, the more complex and variegated the co-existence of people tends to become.Contents1 Concept 2 Controversy 3 See also 4 BibliographyConcept[edit] Social complexity in this sense thus refers typically to political complexity, specifically the presence of a hierarchy in the form of a ruling elite supported by bureaucrats, with associated paraphe
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Earthworks (archaeology)
In archaeology, earthworks are artificial changes in land level, typically made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil
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Architecture
Architecture
Architecture
is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.[3] Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. The term architecture is also used metaphorically to refer to the design of organizations and other abstract concepts
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Monument
A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance. Examples of monuments include statues, (war) memorials, historical buildings, archeological sites, and cultural assets. If there is a public interest in its preservation, a monument can for example be listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
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Upper Paleolithic
The Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
(or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
or Old Stone Age. Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago (the beginning of the Holocene), roughly coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity and before the advent of agriculture. Anatomically modern humans
Anatomically modern humans
(i.e. Homo sapiens) are believed to have emerged around 200,000 years ago, although these lifestyles changed very little from that of archaic humans of the Middle Paleolithic,[1] until about 50,000 years ago, when there was a marked increase in the diversity of artefacts
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Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
is the cultivation and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture
Agriculture
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world
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Futures Studies
Futures studies
Futures studies
(also called futurology) is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. In general, it can be considered as a branch of the social sciences and parallel to the field of history. Futures studies (colloquially called "futures" by many of the field's practitioners) seeks to understand what is likely to continue and what could plausibly change. Part of the discipline thus seeks a systematic and pattern-based understanding of past and present, and to determine the likelihood of future events and trends.[1] Unlike the physical sciences where a narrower, more specified system is studied, futures studies concerns a much bigger and more complex world system. The methodology and knowledge are much less proven as compared to natural science or even social science like sociology and economics
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