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Pre-Celtic
The term pre-Celtic refers to the period in the prehistory of Central and Western Europe postdating the emergence of the Proto-Celtic language and cultures and predating the expansion of the Celts
Celts
or their culture in Iron Age Europe
Iron Age Europe
and Anatolia
Anatolia
(9th to 6th centuries BC). The area involved is that of the maximum extent of the Celtic languages in about the mid 1st century BC
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Y-DNA
The Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals. The other is the X chromosome. Y is the sex-determining chromosome in many species, since it is the presence or absence of Y that determines the male or female sex of offspring produced in sexual reproduction. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development. The DNA
DNA
in the human Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is composed of about 59 million base pairs.[5] The Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is passed only from father to son
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Book Of Invasions
An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof. An invasion can be the cause of a war, be a part of a larger strategy to end a war, or it can constitute an entire war in itself
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Bronze Age Britain
Bronze
Bronze
Age Britain is an era of British history
British history
that spanned from c. 2500 until c. 800 BC.[1] Lasting for approximately 1,700 years, it was preceded by the era of Neolithic Britain
Neolithic Britain
and was in turn followed by the period of Iron Age
Iron Age
Britain. Being categorised as the Bronze
Bronze
Age, it was marked by the use of copper and then bronze by the prehistoric Britons, who used such metals to fashion tools
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Prehistoric Britain
Several species of humans have intermittently occupied Britain for almost a million years. The Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD is conventionally regarded as the end of Prehistoric Britain
Prehistoric Britain
and the start of recorded history in the island, although some historical information is available from before then. The earliest evidence of human occupation around 900,000 years ago is at Happisburgh
Happisburgh
on the Norfolk
Norfolk
coast, with stone tools and footprints probably made by Homo antecessor
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Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA)
One immediate descendant:R1b1 (L278, M415, P25). Two secondary descendants:R1b1a (L754, PF6269, YSC0000022) R1b1b (PH155)Defining mutations M343 Haplogroup
Haplogroup
R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is the most frequently occurring paternal lineage in Western Europe, as well as some parts of Russia
Russia
(e.g. the Bashkir minority) and Central Africa
Central Africa
(e.g. Chad
Chad
and Cameroon). The clade is also present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, Western Asia, as well as parts of North Africa
North Africa
and Central Asia. R1b also reaches high frequencies in the Americas
Americas
and Australasia, due largely to immigration from Western Europe
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Paleolithic
The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
or Palaeolithic /ˌpæliːəˈlɪθɪk/ is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.[1] It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
c. 11,650 cal BP.[2] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is followed in Europe by the Mesolithic, although the date of the transition varies geographically by several thousand years. During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals.[3] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools
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Mitochondrial DNA
Human mitochondrial DNA
Human mitochondrial DNA
with the 37 genes on their respective H- and L-strands.Electron microscopy reveals mitochondrial DNA
DNA
in discrete foci. Bars: 200 nm. (A) Cytoplasmic section after immunogold labelling with anti-DNA; gold particles marking mt DNA
DNA
are found near the mitochondrial membrane (black dots in upper right). (B) Whole mount view of cytoplasm after extraction with CSK buffer and immunogold labelling with anti-DNA; mt DNA
DNA
(marked by gold particles) resists extraction. From Iborra et al., 2004.[2]Mitochondrial DNA
DNA
(mt DNA
DNA
or mDNA)[3] is the DNA
DNA
located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
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Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Neolithic
Neolithic
(/ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen)[1]) was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world[2] and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
or The New Stone Age, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the " Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution"
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Mesolithic
In Old World archaeology, the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
(Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Neolithic, the three periods together forming the Stone Age. The term "Epipaleolithic" is often used for areas outside northern Europe, but was also the preferred synonym used by French archaeologists until the 1960s. The type of culture associated with the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
varies between areas, but it is associated with a decline in the group hunting of large animals in favour of a broader hunter-gatherer way of life, and the development of more sophisticated and typically smaller lithic tools and weapons than the heavy chipped equivalents typical of the Paleolithic
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Terramare Culture
Terramare, Terramara, or Terremare is a technology complex mainly of the central Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy,[1] dating to the Middle and Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
ca. 1700–1150 BC.[2][3] It takes its name from the "black earth" residue of settlement mounds. Terramare is from terra marna, "marl-earth", where marl is a lacustrine deposit. It may be any color but in agricultural lands it is most typically black, giving rise to the "black earth" identification of it.[2] The population of the terramare sites is called the terramaricoli. The sites were excavated exhaustively in 1860–1910.[4] These sites prior to the second half of the 19th century were commonly believed to have been used for Gallic and Roman sepulchral rites. They were called terramare and marnier by the farmers of the region, who mined the soil for fertilizer. Scientific study began with Bartolomeo Gastaldi in 1860
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Italo-Celtic
In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic
Italo-Celtic
is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others. There is controversy about the causes of these similarities. They are usually considered to be innovations, likely to have developed after the breakup of the Proto-Indo-European language. It is also possible that some of these are not innovations, but shared conservative features, i.e. original Indo-European language features which have disappeared in all other language groups
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Urnfield Culture
The Urnfield culture
Urnfield culture
(c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
culture of central Europe, often divided into several local cultures within a broader Urnfield tradition. The name comes from the custom of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields
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Lusatian Culture
The Lusatian culture
Lusatian culture
existed in the later Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and early Iron Age (1300 BC – 500 BC) in most of today's Poland
Poland
and parts of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, eastern Germany, and western Ukraine
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Knovíz Culture
The Knovíz
Knovíz
culture was a bronze age culture, part of the Urnfield culture. It is named after the Czech village of the same name.This European history–related article is a stub
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Danubian Culture
The term Danubian culture was coined by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe to describe the first agrarian society in central and eastern Europe. It covers the Linear Pottery culture (Linearbandkeramik, LBK), stroked pottery and Rössen cultures. The beginning of the Linear Pottery culture dates to around 5500 BC. It appears to have spread westwards along the valley of the river Danube and interacted with the cultures of Atlantic Europe when they reached the Paris Basin.Map of the European Late Neolithic (c. 3500 BCE) in Neolithic Europe showing Danubian culture in YellowDanubian I peoples cleared forests and cultivated fertile loess soils from the Balkans to the Low Countries and the Paris Basin
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