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Prague Spring
The PRAGUE SPRING (Czech : Pražské jaro, Slovak : Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II . It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ), and continued until 21 August 1968 when the Soviet Union and other members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to halt the reforms. The Prague Spring reforms were a strong attempt by Dubček to grant additional rights to the citizens of Czechoslovakia in an act of partial decentralization of the economy and democratization . The freedoms granted included a loosening of restrictions on the media , speech and travel
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Liberal Democracy
LIBERAL DEMOCRACY is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism . It is also called western democracy . It is characterized by fair, free, and competitive elections between multiple distinct political parties , a separation of powers into different branches of government , the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society , and the equal protection of human rights , civil rights , civil liberties , and political freedoms for all people. To define the system in practice, liberal democracies often draw upon a constitution , either formally written or uncodified , to delineate the powers of government and enshrine the social contract . After a period of sustained expansion throughout the 20th century, liberal democracy became the predominant political system in the world
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Bohemia
Coordinates : 50°N 15°E / 50°N 15°E / 50; 15 This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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Moravia-Silesia
The MORAVIAN-SILESIAN REGION (Czech : Moravskoslezský kraj ; Polish : Kraj morawsko-śląski; Slovak : Moravsko-sliezsky kraj), is one of the 14 administrative Regions of the Czech Republic . Before May 2001 it was called the OSTRAVA REGION (Czech : Ostravský kraj). The region is located in the north-eastern part of its historical region of Moravia and in most of the Czech part of the historical region of Silesia . The region borders the Olomouc Region to the west and the Zlín Region to the south. It also borders two other countries – Poland (Opole and Silesian Voivodeships ) to the north and Slovakia (Žilina Region ) to the east. Once a highly industrialized region, it was called the "Steel Heart of the Country" in the communist era . There are, in addition, several mountainous areas where the landscape is relatively preserved. Nowadays, the economy of the region benefits from its location in the Czech/Polish/Slovak borderlands
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First Secretary
SECRETARY is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority , power , or importance in the organization. Secretaries announce important events and communicate to the organization. The term is derived from the Latin word secernere, "to distinguish" or "to set apart", the passive participle (secretum) meaning "having been set apart", with the eventual connotation of something private or confidential, as with the English word secret. A secretarius was a person, therefore, overseeing business confidentially, usually for a powerful individual (a king, pope, etc.). The official title of the leader of most Communist and Socialist political parties is the "GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE" or "FIRST SECRETARY OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE"
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Reformist
REFORMISM is a political position that posits that gradual changes within existing institutions can eventually change a society 's fundamental aspects, such as its economic system and political structures. Within the socialist movement, reformism as a hypothesis of social change grew out of opposition to revolutionary socialism , which contends that some form of revolutionary upheaval is necessary for fundamental structural changes to occur in society. In contrast, reformism posits that a capitalist economy can be gradually transformed into a qualitatively different socialist system through political and economic reform
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Slovak Language
SLOVAK /ˈsloʊvæk, -vɑːk/ ( listen ) (Slovak: slovenský jazyk, pronounced ( listen ), or slovenčina ; not to be confused with slovenski jezik or slovenščina, the native names of the Slovene language ) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(together with Czech , Polish , Silesian , Kashubian , and Sorbian ). Slovak is the official language of Slovakia
Slovakia
where it is spoken by approximately 5.51 million people (2014)
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Federation
A FEDERATION (also known as a FEDERAL STATE) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government. In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Alternatively, federation is a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided between a central authority and a number of constituent regions so that each region retains some degree of control over its internal affairs. The governmental or constitutional structure found in a federation is considered to be federalist, or to be an example of federalism
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
* Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIED POWERS AXIS POWERS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Franklin D
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Rights
RIGHTS are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement ; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory. Rights
Rights
are of essential importance in such disciplines as law and ethics , especially theories of justice and deontology . Rights
Rights
are often considered fundamental to civilization , for they are regarded as established pillars of society and culture , and the history of social conflicts can be found in the history of each right and its development. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "rights structure the form of governments , the content of laws , and the shape of morality as it is currently perceived"
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Freedom Of The Press
FREEDOM OF THE PRESS or FREEDOM OF THE MEDIA is the freedom of communication and expression through various mediums, such as electronic media and published materials . Wherever such freedom exists mostly implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state ; its preservation may be sought through constitutional or other legal protections. With respect to governmental information, any government may distinguish which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public. State materials are protected due to either of two reasons: the classification of information as sensitive, classified or secret, or the relevance of the information to protecting the national interest . Many governments are also subject to sunshine laws or freedom of information legislation that are used to define the ambit of national interest
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Freedom Of Speech
FREEDOM OF SPEECH is the right to articulate one's opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship , or societal sanction. The term FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION is sometimes used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. The right to freedom of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Article 19 of the UDHR states that "everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference" and "everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice"
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Decentralization Of The Economy
DECENTRALIZATION is the process of distributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority. While centralization, especially in the governmental sphere, is widely studied and practiced, there is no common definition or understanding of decentralization. The meaning of decentralization may vary in part because of the different ways it is applied. Concepts of decentralization have been applied to group dynamics and management science in private businesses and organizations, political science , law and public administration , economics and technology
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Freedom Of Movement
FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT, MOBILITY RIGHTS, or the RIGHT TO TRAVEL is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country , and to leave the country and return to it. The right includes not only visiting places, but changing the place where the individual resides or works. Such a right is provided in the constitutions of numerous states , and in documents reflecting norms of international law . For example, Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserts that: * a citizen of a state in which that citizen is present has the liberty to travel, reside in, and/or work in any part of the state where one pleases within the limits of respect for the liberty and rights of others, * and that a citizen also has the right to leave any country, including his or her own, and to return to his or her country at any time
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President Of Czechoslovakia
The PRESIDENT OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA was the head of state of Czechoslovakia , from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992. In periods when the presidency was vacant, most presidential duties were assumed by the Prime Minister . However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions never defined anything like a post of acting president. The second section lists the General Secretaries of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) in 1945–1989. After the 1948 coup d\'état , the General Secretary was the country's de facto chief executive. However, three general secretaries (Klement Gottwald , Antonín Novotný and Gustáv Husák ) also served as president at some point in their tenures. The last living former President of Czechoslovakia, Václav Havel , died in 2011
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