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Prague Spring
The Prague
Prague
Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
after World War II. It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček
Alexander Dubček
was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
(KSČ), and continued until 21 August 1968 when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and other members of the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invaded the country to halt the reforms. The Prague
Prague
Spring reforms were a strong attempt by Dubček to grant additional rights to the citizens of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in an act of partial decentralization of the economy and democratization
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Federation
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government. In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Alternatively, federation is a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided between a central authority and a number of constituent regions so that each region retains some degree of control over its internal affairs.[1][2] The governmental or constitutional structure found in a federation is considered to be federalist, or to be an example of federalism. It can be considered the opposite of another system, the unitary state. France, for example, has been unitary for multiple centuries
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Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Freedom Of Movement
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,[1] and to leave the country and return to it. The right includes not only visiting places, but changing the place where the individual resides or works.[1][2] Such a right is provided in the constitutions of numerous states, and in documents reflecting norms of international law
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Freedom Of Speech
Freedom
Freedom
of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.[2][3][4][5] The term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes any act of seeking, receiving, and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. Freedom
Freedom
of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(UDHR) and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Rights
(ICCPR)
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Freedom Of The Press
Freedom of the press
Freedom of the press
or freedom of the media is the principle that communicate and express through various mediums, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely. Such freedom implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state; its preservation may be sought through constitutional or other legal protections. With respect to governmental information, any government may distinguish which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public. State materials are protected due to either of two reasons: the classification of information as sensitive, classified or secret, or the relevance of the information to protecting the national interest
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Democratization
Democratization (or democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic political regime. It also refers to substantive political changes moving in a democratic direction. It may be the transition from an authoritarian regime to a full democracy, a transition from an authoritarian political system to a semi-democracy or transition from a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. The outcome may be consolidated (as it was for example in the United Kingdom) or democratization may face frequent reversals (as it has faced for example in Venezuela). Different patterns of democratization are often used to explain other political phenomena, such as whether a country goes to a war or whether its economy grows. Democratization itself is influenced by various factors, including economic development, history, and civil society
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Rights
Rights
Rights
are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.[1] Rights
Rights
are of essential importance in such disciplines as law and ethics, especially theories of justice and deontology. Rights
Rights
are often considered fundamental to civilization, for they are regarded as established pillars of society and culture,[2] and the history of social conflicts can be found in the history of each right and its development
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Bohemia
Coordinates: 50°N 15°E / 50°N 15°E / 50; 15This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Moravia-Silesia
The Moravian-Silesian Region
Moravian-Silesian Region
(Czech: Moravskoslezský kraj; Polish: Kraj morawsko-śląski; Slovak: Moravsko-sliezsky kraj), is one of the 14 administrative Regions of the Czech Republic. Before May 2001 it was called the Ostrava
Ostrava
Region (Czech: Ostravský kraj). The region is located in the north-eastern part of its historical region of Moravia and in most of the Czech part of the historical region of Silesia. The region borders the Olomouc Region
Olomouc Region
to the west and the Zlín Region
Zlín Region
to the south. It also borders two other countries – Poland
Poland
(Opole and Silesian Voivodeships) to the north and Slovakia
Slovakia
(Žilina Region) to the east. Once a highly industrialized region, it was called the "Steel Heart of the Country" in the communist era
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First Secretary
Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, power, or importance in the organization. Secretaries announce important events and communicate to the organization. The term is derived from the Latin word secernere, "to distinguish" or "to set apart", the passive participle (secretum) meaning "having been set apart", with the eventual connotation of something private or confidential, as with the English word secret. A secretarius was a person, therefore, overseeing business confidentially, usually for a powerful individual (a king, pope, etc.). The official title of the leader of most Communist and Socialist political parties is the "General Secretary of the Central Committee" or "First Secretary of the Central Committee"
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Reformist
Reformism
Reformism
is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.[1] Within the socialist movement, reformism is the view that gradual changes through existing institutions can eventually lead to fundamental changes in a society’s political and economic systems. Reformism
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Liberalization
Liberalization (or liberalisation) is a general term for any process whereby a state lifts restrictions on some private individual activities. Liberalization occurs when something which used to be banned is no longer banned, or when government regulations are relaxed. Liberalisation means the removal of rules and regulations at various levels of the economy. It prefers free and competitive market and reduce the role of the state in economic affairs. It refers free trade and the removal of government control over economy, for example external trade, foreign investment, loans and aid, technological progress, etc
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Slovak Language
Slovak (/ˈsloʊvæk, -vɑːk/ ( listen)[5][6]) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian). It is called slovenský jazyk (pronounced [ˈsloʋenskiː ˈjazik] ( listen)) or slovenčina ([ˈsloʋent͡ʃina]) in the language itself. Slovak is the official language of Slovakia, where it is spoken by approximately 5.51 million people (2014)
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Liberal Democracy
Liberal democracy
Liberal democracy
is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism. Also called western democracy, it is characterised by fair, free and competitive elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties and political freedoms for all people. To define the system in practice, liberal democracies often draw upon a constitution, either formally written or uncodified, to delineate the powers of government and enshrine the social contract
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