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Potency (pharmacology)
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.[1] A highly potent drug (e.g., fentanyl, alprazolam, risperidone) evokes a given response at low concentrations, while a drug of lower potency (codeine, diazepam, ziprasidone) evokes the same response only at higher concentrations. The potency depends on both the affinity and efficacy. Affinity is how well a drug can bind to a receptor (Fast/strong binding = higher affinity). Efficacy is the relationship between receptor occupancy and the ability to initiate a response at the molecular, cellular, tissue or system level. In other words, efficacy refers to how well an action is took after the drug is bound to a receptor. In pharmacology, a high efficacy usually means that a drug has worked since the drug caused the receptor to metabolize a certain compound extremely well
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Pharmacophore
A pharmacophore is an abstract description of molecular features that are necessary for molecular recognition of a ligand by a biological macromolecule. The IUPAC defines a pharmacophore to be "an ensemble of steric and electronic features that is necessary to ensure the optimal supramolecular interactions with a specific biological target and to trigger (or block) its biological response".[1] A pharmacophore model explains how structurally diverse ligands can bind to a common receptor site
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Fentanyl
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia.[2] It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two.[2] Fentanyl
Fentanyl
is available in a number of forms including by injection, as a skin patch, and to be absorbed through the tissues inside the mouth.[2] Common side effects include nausea, constipation, sleepiness, and confusion.[2] Serious side effects may include a decreased effort to breathe (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, or addiction.[2]
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Risperidone
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.[2] It is mainly used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and irritability in people with autism.[2] It is taken either by mouth or by injection into a muscle.[2] The injectable version is long acting and lasts for about two weeks.[3] Common side effects include movement problems, sleepiness, trouble seeing, constipation, and increased weight.[2][4] Serious side effects may include the potentially permanent movement disorder tardive dyskinesia, as well as neuroleptic malignant syndrome, an increased risk of suicide, and high blood sugar levels.[2][3] In older people with psychosis as a result of dementia, it may increase the risk of dying.[2] It is unclear if it is safe for use in pregnancy.[2] Risperidone
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Codeine
Codeine
Codeine
is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea.[2][3] It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain.[2] Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen.[2] Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults.[4][5] In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age.[2] It is generally taken by mouth.[2] It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours.[
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Diazepam
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medication of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.[5] It is commonly used to treat a range of conditions including anxiety, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, seizures, trouble sleeping, and restless legs syndrome.[5] It may also be used to cause memory loss during certain medical procedures.[6][7] It can be taken by mouth, inserted into the rectum, injected into muscle, or injected into a vein.[7] When given into a vein, effects begin in one to five minutes and last up to an hour.[7] By mouth, effects may take 40 minutes to begin.[8] Common side effects include sleepiness and trouble with coordination.[7] Serious side effects are rare.[5] They include suicide, decreased breathing, and an increased risk of seizures if used too frequently in those with epilepsy.[5][7][9] Occasionally excitement or agitation may occur.[10][11] Long term use can result in tolerance, depende
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Ziprasidone
60% (oral)[1]100% (IM)Metabolism Hepatic (aldehyde reductase)Biological half-life 7 to 10 hours[2]Excretion Urine and fecesIdentifiersIUPAC name5- 2-[4-(1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl -6-chloro-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-oneCAS Number146939-27-7 YPubChem CID60854IUPHAR/BPS59DrugBankDB00246 YChemSpider54841 YUNII6UKA5VEJ6XKEGGD08687 YChEBICHEBI:10119 YChEMBLCHEMBL708 YECHA InfoCard 100.106.954Chemical and physical dataFormula C21H21ClN4OSMolar mass 412.936 g/mol3D model (JSmol)Interactive imageSMILESO=C1Cc2c(N1)cc(Cl)c(c2)CCN3CCN(CC3)c4nsc5ccccc45InChIInChI=1S/C21H21ClN4OS/c22-17-13-18-15(12-20(27)23-18)11-14(17)5-6-25-7-9-26(10-8-25)21-16-3-1-2-4-19(16)28-24-21/h1-4,11,13H,5-10,12H2,(H,23,27) Y
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Adverse Drug Reaction
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.[1] ADRs may occur following a single dose or prolonged administration of a drug or result from the combination of two or more drugs. The meaning of this expression differs from the meaning of "side effect", as this last expression might also imply that the effects can be beneficial.[2] The study of ADRs is the concern of the field known as pharmacovigilance
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Neurotoxicology
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).[3] Neurotoxins are an extensive class of exogenous chemical neurological insults[4] that can adversely affect function in both developing and mature nervous tissue.[5] The term can also be used to classify endogenous compounds, which, when abnormally contacted, can prove neurologically toxic.[4] Though neurotoxins are often neurologically destructive, their ability to specifically target neural components is important in the study of nervous systems.[6] Common examples of neurotoxins include lead,[7] ethanol (drinking alcohol), manganese[8] glutamate,[9] nitric oxide,[10] botulinum toxin (e.g
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Mechanism Of Action
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.[1] A mechanism of action usually includes mention of the specific molecular targets to which the drug binds, such as an enzyme or receptor.[2] Receptor sites have specific affinities for drugs based on the chemical structure of the drug, as well as the specific action that occurs there. Drugs that do not bind to receptors produce their corresponding therapeutic effect by simply interacting with chemical or physical properties in the body
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Pharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics
is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs). The effects can include those manifested within animals (including humans), microorganisms, or combinations of organisms (for example, infection). Pharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics
is the study of how a drug affects an organism, whereas pharmacokinetics is the study of how the organism affects the drug
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Effective Dose (pharmacology)
An effective dose (ED) in pharmacology is the dose or amount of drug that produces a therapeutic response or desired effect in some fraction of the subjects taking it. It has been stated that any substance can be toxic at a high enough dose. This concept was exemplified in 2007 when a California woman died of water intoxication in a contest sanctioned by a radio station.[1] The line between efficacy and toxicity is dependent upon the particular patient, although the dose administered by a physician should fall into the predetermined therapeutic window of the drug. The importance of determining the therapeutic range of a drug cannot be overstated. This is generally defined by the range between the minimum effective dose (MED) and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD)
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